National Academ o Sciences
is a private, nonprot, sel-perpetuating societyo distinguished scholars engaged in scientic and engineering research, dedicated tothe urtherance o science and technology and to their use or the general welare.Upon the authority o the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad-emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the ederal government on scienticand technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president o the National Academyo Sciences.The
National Academ o Engineering
was established in 1964, under the chartero the National Academy o Sciences, as a parallel organization o outstanding en-gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection o its members,sharing with the National Academy o Sciences the responsibility or advising theederal government. The National Academy o Engineering also sponsors engineer-ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research,and recognizes the superior achievements o engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi-dent o the National Academy o Engineering.The
Institute o Medicine
was established in 1970 by the National Academy o Sciences to secure the services o eminent members o appropriate proessions inthe examination o policy matters pertaining to the health o the public. The Insti-tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy o Sciences by itscongressional charter to be an adviser to the ederal government and, upon its owninitiative, to identiy issues o medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president o the Institute o Medicine.The
National Research Council
was organized by the National Academy o Sci-ences in 1916 to associate the broad community o science and technology with theAcademy’s purposes o urthering knowledge and advising the ederal government.Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, theCouncil has become the principal operating agency o both the National Academyo Sciences and the National Academy o Engineering in providing services to thegovernment, the public, and the scientic and engineering communities. The Coun-cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute o Medicine. Dr.Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, o the National Research Council.