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Onion; Genus Allium

Onion; Genus Allium

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Published by zinnia2038
Aslam o Alikum all of you.
Aslam o Alikum all of you.

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Published by: zinnia2038 on Jan 13, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 Allium cepa Family:USES;
Onions, one of the oldestvegetables, are found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures. They are now availablein fresh, frozen, canned,caramelized, pickled, powdered, chopped, and dehydrated forms.Onions can be used, usually chopped or sliced, in almost every type of food, includingcooked foods and fresh salads and as a spicy garnish. They are rarely eaten on their own, but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Depending on the variety, an onioncan be sharp, spicy, tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.
Historical uses:
Raw Onions
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy
166 kJ (40 kcal)
9.34 g
4.24 g
1.7 g
0.1 g
0.042 g
0.013 g
0.017 g
1.1 g
89.11 gVitamin Aequiv.0 μg (0%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.046 mg (4%)Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.027 mg (2%) Niacin (Vit. B3)0.116 mg (1%)Vitamin B60.12 mg (9%)
Folate(Vit. B9)19 μg (5%)Vitamin B120 μg (0%)Vitamin C7.4 mg (12%)V itamin E0.02 mg (0%)Vitamin K 0.4 μg (0%)Calcium23 mg (2%)Iron0.21 mg (2%)Magnesium0.129 mg (0%Phosphorus29 mg (4%)Potassium146 mg (3%)Sodium4 mg (0%)Zinc0.17 mg (2%)
[edit] Eye irritation
As onions are sliced or eaten,cells are broken, allowingenzymes calledalliinasesto  break downamino acid sulphoxidesand generate sulphenic acids.A specific sulfenic acid, 1-propenesulfenic acid, formed when onions are cut, is rapidly rearranged by asecond enzyme, called the lachrymatory factor synthase or LFS, giving syn-propanethial-S-oxide, a volatile gas known as the onion lachrymatory factor or LF.
The LF gasdiffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye,where it activates sensory neurons, creating a stinging sensation. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush outthe irritant.
Chemicals that exhibit such an effect on the eyes are known aslachrymatory agents.
Eye irritation can, therefore, be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping mayalso be effective. Another way to reduce irritation is by chilling, or by not cutting off theroot of the onion (or by doing it last), as the root of the onion has a higher concentrationof enzymes.
Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and therelease of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Chilling or freezing onions preventsthe enzymes from activating, limiting the amount of gas generated. Eye irritation may be avoided by having a fan blow the gas away from the eyes as the onion is being cut. Theamount of sulfenic acids and LF released, and the irritation effect, differs among
species. On January 31, 2008, the New ZealandCrop and Food institute created a strainof "no tears" onions by using gene-silencing  biotechnologyto prevent synthesis by the onions of the lachyrmatory factor synthase enzyme.
[edit] Varieties
Brown andwhiteonionsYellow onionsFlower head of a yellow onionRed onions
Production trends
Onion field during harvest,Vale, Oregon(USA).

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