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Advanced Ceramics - Material Matters v4n2

Advanced Ceramics - Material Matters v4n2

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Published by Sigma-Aldrich
Read technical, expert micro-reviews on advanced ceramics and superconductoring materials and their applications.
Read technical, expert micro-reviews on advanced ceramics and superconductoring materials and their applications.

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Published by: Sigma-Aldrich on Jan 13, 2010
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05/06/2013

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Ceramics—more than just common materials
Iron PnictideSuperconductorsHigh TemperatureBoron-basedThermoelectric MaterialsSilicon CarbideMesoporous Oxides andTheir Applicationsto Hydrogen Storage
Advanced Ceramics
Materials and Applications
TM
Vol. 4, No. 2
 
   I  n   t  r  o   d  u  c   t   i  o  n
Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich Corporation
6000 N. Teutonia Ave.Milwaukee, WI 53209, USA
To Place Orders
Telephone 800-325-3010 (USA)FAX 800-325-5052 (USA)
Customer & Technical Services
Customer Inquiries 800-325-3010Technical Service 800-231-8327SAFC
®
800-244-1173Custom Synthesis 800-244-1173Flavors & Fragrances 800-227-4563International 414-438-385024-Hour Emergency 414-438-3850Web site sigma-aldrich.comEmail aldrich@sial.com
Subscriptions
To request your
FREE
subscription to
Material Matters
, please contact us by:Phone:
800-325-3010
(USA)Mail:
Attn: Marketing CommunicationsAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.Sigma-Aldrich CorporationP.O. Box 355Milwaukee, WI 53201-9358
Website:
sigma-aldrich.com/mm
 Email:
sams-usa@sial.com
International customers, please contact yourlocal Sigma-Aldrich ofce. For worldwide contactinormation, please see back cover.
Material Matters
is also available in PDF ormat onthe Internet at
.Aldrich brand products are sold throughSigma-Aldrich, Inc. Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. warrants thatits products conorm to the inormation contained inthis and other Sigma-Aldrich publications. Purchasermust determine the suitability o the product or itsparticular use. See reverse side o invoice or packingslip or additional terms and conditions o sale.All prices are subject to change without notice.
Material Matters
(ISSN 1933–9631) is a publication o Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. Aldrich is a member o theSigma-Aldrich Group. © 2009 Sigma-Aldrich Co.
TM
Vol. 4 No. 2
Introduction
Ceramics can be broadly defined as nonmetallic inorganic solidsconsisting of infinite arrays of metal and nonmetal ions. The arraysdo not form discrete units such as molecules or polymeric chains.As a rule, ceramics combine metal oxides, borides, carbides,arsenides, nitrides or other inorganic compounds into complexmaterials which have properties that differ considerably from thoseof the original constituents.The name “ceramic” originates from the Greek word “keramos”,which means “pottery”. It can also be traced back to the word“Shrapika” meaning “potter” in Sanskrit.
1
For centuries, ceramicmaterials were manufactured by firing clay precursors, and most ofthe common ceramic products, such as tiles, cookware and bricksare still made this way.Constantly growing demand for advanced materials in the 20
th
century resulted in thedevelopment of new classes of ceramic materials that do not originate in clays. Suchmaterials, known as “Advanced Ceramics”, are manufactured either from pure metaloxides by ceramic forming techniques,
2
or from other precursors using sol-gel processing,
3
 atomic layer deposition,
4
or gas-phase synthesis.
5
It wouldn’t be an exaggeration to say thatadvanced ceramics play a crucial role in most areas of modern science and technology. Theirapplications comprise electronic materials and devices, nanomaterials, coatings, structuralmaterials and composites.Alternative energy is an area where advanced ceramics have proven to be particularlyvaluable. For example, high-temperature superconducting ceramic materials demonstrategreat potential for reducing energy losses in electrical systems and devices, thus increasingtheir energy efficiency. Thermoelectric ceramics are capable of clean energy generationby transforming waste heat into electricity. Highly porous complex oxide systems find useas media for safe storage of energy rich gases such as hydrogen. Ceramics are also usedas substrates for light emitting diodes, electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells(SOFC), highly efficient insulators etc.The current issue of
Material Matters
features four articles that are concerned withapplications of advanced ceramic materials in alternative energy and electronics fields. Theissue begins with an article by Hideo Hosono from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo,Japan, that highlights novel superconducting ceramic materials recently developed by hisgroup. Novel thermoelectric ceramics are discussed in the paper by Takao Mori from NationalInstitute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan, and silicon carbide based materials arereviewed in the article by Nicholas Wright and Alton B. Horsfall from Newcastle University,Newcastle, UK. Finally, the group led by Samuel Mao from the Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, USA, reports on the properties of nanoporous oxides for hydrogen storage andother energy related applications. The issue also highlights Aldrich Materials Science productsfor solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications as well as ceramic nanomaterials, high-puritymetal oxides and precursors for vapor deposition of ceramic thin films.Customary to
Material Matters
, each article in this issue is accompanied by Sigma-Aldrich
®
 products helpful in the corresponding type of advanced ceramics research. The facing page liststhe materials categories that you will find in this issue. Please visit Aldrich Materials Science at
 sigma-aldrich.com/matsci 
for product information. We invite you to send your comments andquestions regarding
Material Matters
and materials of interest to
matsci@sial.com.
References:
(1) http://www.iitk.ac.in/infocell/Archive/dirjuly3/techno_ceramics.html (last accessed May 5, 2009)(2) Carter, C.B., Norton, M.G.
Ceramic Materials
, Springer: New York, London, 2007.(3)
Material Matters
2006
,
1
,
 
3,
 
8-9.(4)
Material Matters
2008
,
3
, 2, 28-30.(5)
Material Matters
2009
,
4
, 1, 2-4.
About Our Cover
Ceramic materials have always been, and will continue to be, an inseparable part of human life. Theyare essential constituents in all modern technologies and devices including computers, displays, cars andspacecraft among others. Due to their unique combination of properties such as hardness, durability,high electrical and thermal resistivity and magnetic behavior, ceramic materials have become irreplaceablein a broad variety of applications. The most striking among them is the ability of certain complexceramics to completely lose their electrical resistance at relatively high temperatures—an effect known ashigh-temperature superconductivity. The structure on the cover represents a group of high-temperaturesuperconductors with the general formula LaFeAsO, developed at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Readabout these unique materials in Dr. Hosono’s article on the pages 32-35.
Viktor Balema, Ph.D.Materials ScienceSigma-Aldrich Corporation
 
For questions, product data, or new product suggestions, please contact Aldrich Materials Science at
matsci@sial.com
.
31
I  n t   o d  u c  t  i   on
Joe Porwoll, PresidentAldrich Chemical Co., Inc.
Do you have a compound that you wish Sigma-Aldrich
®
could list to help materials research?If it is needed to accelerate your research, it matters—please send your suggestion to
matsci@sial.com
and we will be happy to give it careful consideration.
“Your Materials Matter.”
Advanced Ceramics and Other MaterialsFeatured in this Issue*
Materials CategoryContentPage
Binary SystemsArsenides: (M)
x
(As)
y
35Phosphides: (M)
x
(P)
y
35Borides: (M)
x
(P)
y
39Nitrides: (M)
x
(N)
y
40Silicides45Silicon Carbide: SiC45Metal Carbides: (M)
x
(C)
y
45Complex Metal OxidesAluminates: MAlO
x
36Ferrites: M(Fe)
x
(O)
y
36Titanates: M(Ti)
x
(O)
y
53Tungstates: M(W)
x
(O)
y
54Zirconates: M(Zr)
x
(O)
y
54Niobates: M(Nb)
x
(O)
y
54Rare Earth Metal OxidesOxides based on the lanthanide group of elements40Ultra Pure Metal Oxide PowdersMaterials produced at one of Sigma-Aldrich’s materials chemistry centersof excellence42Precursors Packaged forDeposition SystemsHigh-quality precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) packaged in steelcylinders suitable for direct use deposition systems49Chloro & Alkoxysilanes (RSiX
3
) Silane precursors used in the synthesis of mesoporous ceramics50Metal Alkoxides (M(OAlk)x)Alkoxide precursors used in the synthesis of mesoporous ceramics51SOFC MaterialsCathode materials, anode materials and Electrolytes used in Solid OxideFuel Cells (SOFCs).55
Prof. Padma Gopalan of the University of Wisconsin, Madison,kindly suggested that we offer ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate(
Aldrich Prod. No.700479
). The incorporation of metal containingmoieties in block copolymer architecture lays the foundation forthe inclusion of new functionalities to nanostructured materials.Examples include the incorporation of redox-active, photophysical,conductive, catalytic, or pre-ceramic functionalities. Polymerscontaining Ferrocene (
Aldrich Prod. No.F408
) have been widelyused, largely due to their redox-induced morphological changes,their ability to serve as precursors for magnetic or catalyticmaterials and their use as plasma etch-resistant nano-templates.Ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate can be polymerized by a number ofcontrolled radical polymerization techniques, which provide simplesynthetic routes to a variety of functional polymers.
Ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate, 95% (NMR)
FMMA
 
[31566-61-7]
 
C
15
H
16
FeO
2
 
FW 284.13
FeOCH
2
OCH
3
mp 52 to 54 °C
1 g
References:
(1) Rider, D. A.; Liu, K.; Eloi, J.-C.; Vanderark, L.; Yang, Ling.; Wang, J.-Y.; Grozea, D.;Lu, H.-Z.; Russel, T.P.; Manners, I.
 ACS Nano
 
2008
,
2(2)
, 263.(2) Sakakiyama, T.; Ohkita, H.; Ohoka, M.; Ito, S.; Tsujii, Y.; Fukuda. T.
Chem. Lett.
2005
,
 34
, 1366.
*Products within each table are sorted by the atomic number of the rst element where applicable.

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