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ABG Interpretation

ABG Interpretation

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Published by: Tracy on Jan 14, 2010
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11/09/2012

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ABG INTERPRETATION
Vicky Honkus MSN RN2005Education Department
 
 
OBJECTIVES:Upon completion of this self learning module, the participant will be able to:1. State the normal values for pH, pCO2 and HCO3.2. Discuss the basic rules to follow in interpreting ABG results.2. Explain how compensation is evaluated.3. Correctly interpret the practice ABG sets in this self learning module.4. List common causes of acid-base disorders.
2
 
The chemical balance of body fluids is of enormous clinical importance, since it is acritical factor in all metabolic and cellular functions. The body's own regulatorymechanisms usually retain this balancewithin normal limits, but certain disease processes, illnesses and treatments can causeimbalances that may even become lifethreatening, unless appropriate interventionsare implemented. Acid base balance refers tothe hydrogen ion concentration of all bodyfluids, which is determined by chemicalsubstances present in the blood and other  body fluids.Arterial Blood Gas interpretation is an easyskill to master. It simply requires an understanding of pH, the respiratory component (pCO2), ametabolic component (HCO3 and/or Base Excess), what they represent, and what the normalranges are.I.
pH
In chemistry class we learned that pH describes the concentration of hydrogen ions, and that a pH of 7.0 is perfectly neutral. The
acceptable pH range of our blood is 7.35 – 7.45
, which isslightly alkaline. The body needs to maintain the pH of its chemical broth within fairly narrowlimits for proper body functioning. The body’s own regulatory mechanisms usually maintainthis balance, but certain disease processes, illnesses, and treatments can cause imbalances thatmay become life threatening unless appropriate interventions are implemented. A pH that is lessthan 7.0 or greater than 7.7 is not compatible with life.
The first step in interpreting ABG results is to determine if the pH represents acidosis oralkalosis, or is perfectly normal
. 
For purposes of ABG interpretation, we will consider themiddle of the acceptable range (7.4) as neutral for the blood, any value less than 7.4 as acidotic,and any value higher than 7.4 as alkalotic.
pH
a c i d o t i c a l k a l o t i c
7.35
7.4
7.45
 Acceptableranges:
pH 7.35-7.45pCO2 35-45
 
HCO3 22-26BE +2 to -2
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Diane Shepherd added this note
Hi Tracy I know this is really cheeky to ask, but would it be possible for you to send me a docx copy of the 'CIWA-Ar' and flowsheet that you have posted on the scribd website? My email address is dianefinlinson@hotmail.com Many thanks, Diane.
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