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Recommendations of 22th ITTC on stability

Recommendations of 22th ITTC on stability

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Published by J_Spain
22th stability recommendations. Good references
22th stability recommendations. Good references

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Published by: J_Spain on Jan 14, 2010
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1
The Specialist Committee on Stability
Final Report andRecommendations to the 22
nd
ITTC
1. INTRODUCTION1.1
 
Membership, Meetings and Organisa-tion
Membership. The Committee appointed bythe 21st ITTC consisted of the following mem- bers:-
 
Professor D. Vassalos (Chairman)University of Strathclyde, UK -
 
Dr. M. Renilson (Secretary)Australian Maritime College, Australia-
 
Mr. A DamsgaardDanish Maritime Institute, Denmark -
 
Dr. J.O. De KatMARIN, The Netherlands-
 
Professor A. FrancescuttoUniversity of Trieste, Italy-
 
Professor H.Q. GaoChina Ship Scientific Research Centre,-
 
Professor M. HamamotoOsaka University, Japan-
 
Professor J. Matusiak Helsinki University of Technology,Finland-
 
Mr. D. MolyneuxInstitute for Marine Dynamics, Canada-
 
Professor A. Papanikolaou National Technical University of Athens,GreeceMeetings. Five Committee meetings were heldas follows:-
 
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology,Trondheim-Sept. 1996-
 
Osaka University, Osaka-Nov. 1996-
 
Heraklion, Crete-Nov. 1997-
 
Institute for Marine DynamicsSt. Johns, Newfoundland-Oct. 1998-
 
Australian Maritime College,Launceston, Tasmania-Jan. 1999(Editorial meeting)Organisation. The following workinggroups were established and chairmen ap- pointed:-
 
Guidelines for model tests on intact stabil-ity (Hamamoto)-
 
Techniques for numerical simulation of intact stability (De Kat)-
 
Guidelines for model tests on damage sta- bility (Molyneux)-
 
Techniques for numerical simulation of damage stability (Papanikolaou)-
 
Symbols and Terminology (Matusiak)Liaisons. The following Committees andorganisations have been contacted: Loads andResponses; Manoeuvring; Safety of High-Speed Marine Vehicles; Model Tests of High-Speed Marine Vehicles; Environmental Mod-elling; IMO (Revision of 1966 ICLL, IntactStability, Harmonisation Group); WEGEMT;CRN; SNAME Technical Panel; EU Thematic Network - SAFER EURORO; SRA of Japan -Panel 71.
 
2
1.2 Recommendations of the 21st ITTC
The recommendations for the Future Work of the Committee made by the 21st ITTC wereas follows:
 
Examine the
techniques
for carrying outmodel tests to investigate capsize of 
intact 
and
damaged 
ships and provide
guidelines
for such tests.
 
Assess the methods available for numericalsimulations of capsize of 
intact 
and
dam-aged 
ships.
1.3 Contents of the 22nd ITTC Report
The following chapters detail the tasks un-dertaken by the Committee:Chapter 2:BackgroundChapter 3:State of the art Review of IntactStabilityChapter 4:State of the art Review of Dam-age StabilityChapter 5:Techniques for Numerical Mod-elling of Intact StabilityChapter 6:Techniques for Numerical Mod-elling of Damage StabilityChapter 7:Guidelines for Benchmark TestsChapter 8:Conclusions and Recommenda-tionsChapter 9:References and NomenclatureAppendix A:Guidelines for ExperimentalTesting of Intact and DamageStability
2. BACKGROUND2.1 General
Stability against capsizing in heavy seas isone of the most fundamental requirements con-sidered by naval architects when designing aship. The purpose of studying capsizing is toestablish an understanding of ship behaviour inextreme seas and to relate this to the geometricand operational characteristics of the ship toachieve cost effective and safe operation. In anindustry with progressively diminishing returnsand an ever increasing emphasis on safety thisobjective is becoming ever more important. Asa consequence, the research effort in this fieldover the last 10 years has expanded considera- bly, as indicated by the plethora of publicationsavailable in the literature and the large number of specialist international conferences, sympo-sia and workshops which have been held.Capsizing is a statistically rare event con-cerned with extreme behaviour of ships inwaves. To assist in understanding what is acomplex phenomenon, efforts have been di-rected towards identifying modes of capsizingand their inter-relationships based on the resultsof model experiments and numerical simula-tions. Research using scale models in realisticwave conditions, combined with theoreticaldevelopments in non-linear systems dynamicshas led to improved understanding and insighton the nature of the capsize process. Mathe-matical and numerical models followed of in-creasing sophistication, capable of predictingwith sufficient engineering accuracy the abilityof the ship to resist capsize in a range of sce-narios. A stage has now been reached where acombination of numerical and physical modeltesting provides powerful prediction techniques.However, despite the considerable progressachieved, the complexity of the problem athand has meant prediction of capsize thresholdsmust still rely on a combination of theoretical,experimental, and intuitive approaches whichlack internationally accepted standards. Safetyagainst capsizing is currently assessed by acombination of the following:
 
Deterministic rules - prescriptive regul-ations deriving from experiential andstatistical data but which lack, in the main,solid foundations (IMO Intact StabilityCode, SOLAS’95).
 
Probabilistic rules – adoption of a frame-work of probabilistic description (IMOResolution A.265) or of risk assessmentmethods (Formal Safety Assessment).
 
3
 
Performance-based standards – use of numerical and or physical model testing toassess safety against capsizing based on theability of a vessel to resist capsize in agiven scenario, pertaining to vessel andenvironmental conditions (IMOSOLAS’95 Resolution 14).Standards in these groups are often assumedto ensure an “equivalent” level of safety, butwithout any evidence to support this and with aserious attempt to demonstrate suchequivalence totally lacking. Coupled to this isthe lack of an effective translation of rules- based knowledge to safer ship designs, often ahaphazard process shaped by the ingenuity of designers. This inherent weakness isexacerbated by the emergence internationallyof a clear tendency to move from prescriptiveto performance–based standards and to adoptfirst-principles approaches to safe ship designand operation. To overcome theaforementioned weaknesses and to respond toemerging needs for adopting first principlesand performance-based approachesinternationally, a concerted effort is required toassess the numerical and experimentalmethods currently available and to devisestandard techniques and guidelines for assessing safety against capsizing as a matter of priority. ITTC has responded positively tothis need by establishing the SpecialistCommittee on Ship Stability.
2.2 Questionnaire
The first step to achieving the above mustderive from a thorough knowledge of the stateof the art pertaining to availability of numerical“tools” and hydrodynamic facilities capable of assessing ship safety against capsizing. To thisend, a questionnaire was prepared and circulat-ed to all the ITTC member organisations whichincluded questions on a wide range of capsizescenarios, involving intact and damaged condi-tions, water trapped on deck and cargo shifting.Respondents were asked to complete this ques-tionnaire which included questions about their ability to model various capsize modes, thefactors taken into account and the techniquesused. ITTC members were also asked if theywere willing to validate their computer pro-grams for predicting extreme ship behaviour including capsize against standard sets of mod-el experiments. Details of the candidate ships,for which systematic data pertaining to wide-ranging conditions are available, are describedin chapters 7 and 8. A summary of the resultsreceived to date is given in Tables 1 and 2. Thefull questionnaire, including details of how tofill it out and submit it, can be found on theAustralian Maritime College's web site at:
www.amc.edu.au/staff/events/stab2000/ittc.html
2.3
 
Symbols
A comprehensive review of the symbols used by the major organisations with interest in shipstability including ITTC, IMO, and a range of  journals, was conducted with a view to recom-mending a rationalised list of symbols to beincluded in the ITTC standard symbols. Un-fortunately, the differences found are too great.Following careful consideration, it was consid-ered inappropriate to make any harried recom-mendations at this stage before consulting infull all concerned and following a process of careful evaluation. It is strongly recommendedthat this be pursued with a view to finalise it intime to report at the 23
rd
ITTC.
3. STATE OF THE ART REVIEW OFINTACT STABILITY3.1 General
Early work focused on resonant rolling mo-tion in beam seas in the presence of beam wind.This lead to the adoption, in 1985, of IMO Re-solution A.562, known as
Weather Criteria
,(Blagoveshchensky, 1932, Vassalos, 1985,Yamagata, 1959)
.
This has been successful inensuring adequate stability of conventionalships without any damage or forward

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