CHAPTER 11.1 INTRODUCTION.
Design, operation and refurbishment of machineries are strongly related to cavitationflow phenomena, this may occur in either the rotating runner-impeller or the stationary parts of a machinery. The economic trend to increase the specific power of the machinecombined with the modern operating conditions to operate the machine over an extendedrange of discharge and specific energy challenges the scientific community to developadvanced knowledge of cavitation physics for this type of machineries.Cavitation occurs whenever the pressure in the flow of water drops to the value of the pressure of the saturated water vapour, pv (at the prevailing temperature); cavities filled by vapour, and partly by gases excluded from the water as a result of the low pressure,are formed. When these ‘bubbles’ are carried by the flow into regions of higher pressure,the vapour quickly condenses and the bubbles implode, the cavities being filled suddenly by the surrounding water. Not only is this process noisy, with disruption in the flow pattern, but – more importantly, if the cavity implodes against a surface, the violentimpact of the water particles acting in quick succession at very high pressures, if sustained over a period of time, causes substantial damage to the (concrete or steel)surface, this can lead to a complete failure of the structure. Thus cavitation corrosion(pitting) and the often accompanying vibration is a phenomenon that has to be taken intoaccount in the design of hydraulic structures, and prevented whenever possible
(Knapp, Daily and Hammit, 1970; Galperin etal., 1977; Arndt, 1981).
In this project i reviewed the broad definition of cavitation as it relates to hydraulicmachineries most especially on centripetal pumps and turbinesCavitation in turbines cannot be explain generally but by the various types of turbinessince each of them exhibit varying signs of cavitation and as such has varying ways of remedying it
1.2 CLASSES OF CAVITATION.
Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behaviour:Inertial (Transient) cavitation is the process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidlycollapses, producing a shock wave. Such cavitation often occurs in pumps, propellers, impellers, and in the vascular tissues of plants. Non-inertial cavitation is the process in which a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate insize or shape due to some form of energy input, such as an acoustic field. Such cavitation isoften employed in ultrasonic cleaning baths and can also be observed in pumps, propellers,etc.Since the shock waves formed by cavitation are strong enough to significantly damagemoving parts, cavitation is usually an undesirable phenomenon. It is specifically avoided inthe design of machines such as turbines or propellers.
1.3 TYPICAL SITUATIONS FAVORABLE TO CAVITATION
Typical situations in which cavitation can appear and develop within a flow can be describedas follow;Wall geometry may give rise to sharp local velocity increases and resulting pressure dropswithin a globally steady flow. This happens in the case of a restriction in the cross-sectional