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Cavitation in Pumps and Turbines

Cavitation in Pumps and Turbines

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Published by Ben
Cavitation in Hydraulic machinery
Cavitation in Hydraulic machinery

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Ben on Jan 15, 2010
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08/16/2013

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ABSTRACT
Design, operation and refurbishment of hydraulic turbines, pumps or pump-turbine arestrongly related to cavitation flow phenomena, which may occur in either the rotating runner-impeller or the stationary parts of the machine. This project presents the cavitation phenomena featured by hydraulic machinery in both pump and turbine mode, the influence of cavitation development on machine efficiency and operation are discussed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to acknowledge my supervisor who gave me the necessary guidelines in writingthis project.
NOMENCLATURE
 A
[m2] Area of the Flow Cross Section
 NPSE 
[Jkg-1] = Net Positive Suction Energy
 P 
[W] =Mechanical Power of the Machine
Q
[m3s-1] =Discharge
 g=
[ms-2] =Acceleration Due to Gravity
n=
[s-1] =Speed of Revolution
 p
 s
 
[Pa] =Absolute Static Pressure
 p
a
 
[Pa] =Atmospheric Pressure
 p
v
 
[Pa] =Vapor Pressureχ 
E
= [-] Local Cavitation Factor κ= [-] Cavitation Number ρ [kgm-3] =Water Density.σ [-] Thomas Number 
 
CHAPTER 11.1 INTRODUCTION.
Design, operation and refurbishment of machineries are strongly related to cavitationflow phenomena, this may occur in either the rotating runner-impeller or the stationary parts of a machinery. The economic trend to increase the specific power of the machinecombined with the modern operating conditions to operate the machine over an extendedrange of discharge and specific energy challenges the scientific community to developadvanced knowledge of cavitation physics for this type of machineries.Cavitation occurs whenever the pressure in the flow of water drops to the value of the pressure of the saturated water vapour, pv (at the prevailing temperature); cavities filled by vapour, and partly by gases excluded from the water as a result of the low pressure,are formed. When these ‘bubbles’ are carried by the flow into regions of higher pressure,the vapour quickly condenses and the bubbles implode, the cavities being filled suddenly by the surrounding water. Not only is this process noisy, with disruption in the flow pattern, but – more importantly, if the cavity implodes against a surface, the violentimpact of the water particles acting in quick succession at very high pressures, if sustained over a period of time, causes substantial damage to the (concrete or steel)surface, this can lead to a complete failure of the structure. Thus cavitation corrosion(pitting) and the often accompanying vibration is a phenomenon that has to be taken intoaccount in the design of hydraulic structures, and prevented whenever possible
(Knapp, Daily and Hammit, 1970; Galperin etal., 1977; Arndt, 1981).
In this project i reviewed the broad definition of cavitation as it relates to hydraulicmachineries most especially on centripetal pumps and turbinesCavitation in turbines cannot be explain generally but by the various types of turbinessince each of them exhibit varying signs of cavitation and as such has varying ways of remedying it
1.2 CLASSES OF CAVITATION.
Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behaviour:Inertial (Transient) cavitation is the process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidlycollapses, producing a shock wave. Such cavitation often occurs in pumps, propellers, impellers, and in the vascular tissues of plants. Non-inertial cavitation is the process in which a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate insize or shape due to some form of energy input, such as an acoustic field. Such cavitation isoften employed in ultrasonic cleaning baths and can also be observed in pumps, propellers,etc.Since the shock waves formed by cavitation are strong enough to significantly damagemoving parts, cavitation is usually an undesirable phenomenon. It is specifically avoided inthe design of machines such as turbines or propellers.
1.3 TYPICAL SITUATIONS FAVORABLE TO CAVITATION
Typical situations in which cavitation can appear and develop within a flow can be describedas follow;Wall geometry may give rise to sharp local velocity increases and resulting pressure dropswithin a globally steady flow. This happens in the case of a restriction in the cross-sectional
 
area of liquid ducts (Venturi nozzles), or due to Curvature imposed on flow streamlines bythe Local geometry (bends in pipe flow, upper sides of blades in propellers and pumps).Cavitation can also occur in shear flows due to large turbulent pressure fluctuations (see jets,wakes, etc.).The basic unsteady nature of some flows (e.g. water hammer in hydraulic control circuits, or ducts of hydraulic power plants, or in the fuel feed lines of Diesel engines) can result instrong fluid acceleration and consequently in the Instantaneous production of low pressures atsome Point in the flow leading to cavitation. The local roughness of the walls (e.g. theconcrete walls of dam spillways) produces local wakes in which small attached cavities maydevelop.As a consequence of the vibratory motion of the walls (e.g. liquid cooling of Diesel engines,standard A.S.T.M.E. erosion device) oscillating pressure fields are created and superimposedon an otherwise uniform pressure field. If the Oscillation amplitude is large enough,cavitation can appear when the negative oscillation occurs. Solid bodies that are suddenlyaccelerated by a shock in a quiescent liquid, particularly if they have sharp edges. The liquidacceleration needed to get round these edges produces low pressures even if the velocities arerelatively small immediately after the shock.
1.4 THE MAIN EFFECTS OF CAVITATION IN TURBO MACHINERIES.
If a hydraulic system is designed to operate with a homogeneous liquid, additional vapor structures due to cavitation can be interpreted, by analogy with the case of mechanicalsystems, as mechanical clearances. The vapor structures are often unstable, and when theyreach a region of increased pressure, they often violently — Alteration of the performance of the system (reduction in lift and increase in drag of a foil,fall in turbomachinery efficiency, reduced capacity to evacuate water in spillways, energydissipation, etc.); — The appearance of additional forces on the solid structures; — Production of noise and vibrations; — Wall erosion, in the case of developed cavitation if the velocity difference between theliquid and the solid wall is high enough.Thus, at first glance, cavitation appears as a harmful phenomenon that must be avoided. Inmany cases, the free cavitation condition is the most severe condition with which the designer is faced. To avoid the excessive financial charges that would be associated with this, a certaindegree of cavitation development may be allowed. Of course, this can be done only if theeffects of developed cavitation are controlled.The negative effects of cavitation are often stressed. However, cavitation is also used in someindustrial processes to concentrate energy on small surfaces and produce high pressure peaks.For this purpose, ultrasonic devices are often used.Examples of such positive applications include: — The cleaning of surfaces by ultrasonics or with cavitating jets, — The dispersion of particles in a liquid medium, — The production of emulsions, — Electrolytic deposition (the ion layers that cover electrodes are broken down byCavitation, accelerating the deposition process), — Therapeutic massage and bacteria destruction in the field of medical engineering, — The limitation of flow rates in confined flows due to the development of super cavities.Collapse since the internal pressure hardly varies and remains close to the vapor pressure.

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100 years ago and that is best of example of fluid cavitation. /////////////////////////////////////Dev gangwar////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
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