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Basic Nutrition 2009 Revised

Basic Nutrition 2009 Revised

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Published by ken

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Published by: ken on Jan 15, 2010
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Is the science of food, the nutrients, and the substances they contain, their action, interaction,and balance in relation to health and disease. (Council of the American Medical Association).
Practical application of the principles of nutrition which includes planning of meals for thehealthy as well as the sick.
Products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy andnutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues.
2 Main Sources of Foods:
1. Plants: grains, pulses, fruits, vegetables, tubers, nuts , oilseeds and seaweeds.2. Animals: meat and entrails, milk, poultry, eggs, fish, and shellfish.***Manufactured food, also convenience food are products of either of the two or a combination of them.
Types of Foods:
a.Grains & cereals –rice, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, oats, rye, millet. b.Fruits1.Tropical –pineapple, mango, papaya, banana.2.Sub-tropical –citrus, olives, figs.3.Deciduous –grapes, apple, and pears.4.Berries –strawberries, blueberries.5.Stone – apricot and peach.c. Vegetables1. Fruits –cucumber, tomatoes.2. Leaf and stem –cabbage, celery, swamp cabbage or kangkong, pechay.3. Seeds –green peas, mongo, green beans.4. Root –carrot, radish.5. Flowers –cauliflowers, broccoli, squash flowers.d. Tubers –sweet potatoes, cassava, yam, potatoes.e. Nuts –pili nut, pistachio, cashew, almond.f. Oilseeds –coconut oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, olive oil.g. Seaweed – agar, carrageenan.h. Pulses –beans, peas, and lentils.i. Meat and entrails –beef, veal, pork, mutton, goat, rabbit, venison, seal, whale, and their internalorgans. j. Milk –cow’s, carabao’s, goat’s, sheep’s, camel’s.k. Poultry – chicken, turkey, ducks, geese, quail.l. Eggs –chicken, duck, turtle.m. Fish –(including roe, liver): milkfish or bangus, sardine, tuna, mackerel, cod, catfish, shark, tilapia.n. Shellfish1. Crustaceans – crab, lobster, shrimp, prawns.2. Mollusks – clams, oysters, snail, octopus , squids.
Chemical substances present in food and is used in the body for one or more of the followingfunctions:1.to provide energy2.to build and repair tissues3.to regulate life processes1
2 Major Divisions of Nutrients:
1. Macronutrients – they are needed in the body in relatively large amounts.Ex: Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Major minerals and Water.2. Micronutrients – the body needs them in smaller quantityEx: Vitamins and trace minerals
Six Main Groups of Nutrients
1.Carbohydrates – are plant-derived food s composed of sugars. Starch foods ( rice, pasta, rootcrops, bread ) and those concentrated in sugars are common sources. Fruits and vegetablescontain dietary fiber, a complex form of CHO.2.Protein – are made up of amino acids, which serve as the building units of body tissues. Theyare vital for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body.3.Fats or Lipids is a family of water-insoluble substances that include triglycerides (fats andoils), phospholipids (lecithin), and sterols (cholesterol and ergosterol). Of the lipids in food,95% are fats and oils, and 5% are other lipids.4 Minerals - are pure inorganic elements. They are not metabolized, nor do they yield energy. Theyare indestructible and need not be handled with the special care.a.Major –sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, chloride, sulfur, magnesium. b.Trace iron, zinc, copper, fluoride, iodine, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, chromium,cobalt.5 Water soluble and fat soluble - these are organic but they do not provide energy. Instead, theyfacilitate the release of energy from CHO, CHON and fat and participate in numerous other activities throughout the body. Because they are complex organic molecules, they are vulnerable todestruction by heat, light, and chemical agents. Thus, food must be handled carefully to preservethem.a.Water-soluble – 
Thiamine(B1), Riboflavin(B2), Niacin, Biotin, Pantothenic acid, Folic acid, Pyridoxine(B6), Cobalamin(B12).
 b.Fat-soluble – 
Vitamins A, D, E, K.
6 Water - is a food as well as nutrient. It provides the environment in which nearly all the body’sactivities are conducted.
Classification of Nutrients according to its Chemical Nature
1.Organic nutrients - contain carbon. Ex: CHO, CHON, Fat and vitamins2.Inorganic nutrients - they do not contain carbon. Ex: Water and minerals
Classification of Nutrients according to its Sources
1.Natural nutrients - are obtained from plant and animal foods.2.Synthetic nutrients - are man-made nutrients such as vitamin or mineral pill.
Classification of Nutrients according to its Essentiality
1.Dietary essential nutrients - are those that the body cannot make in sufficient quantity to meetits requirement; they must be obtained from the diet.2.Non dietary essential nutrients - are those that can be produced in the body in enough amounts.Among them are cholesterol and the amino acids.
CHO, CHON and fats are energy nutrients that fact that they yield calories whenmetabolized in the body.
Minerals, vitamins and water do not provide energy.
Alcohol is not a nutrient but it provides energy.
The energy content of food is measured in kilocalories (kcal) or kilojoules (kj) .
ONE CALORIE - it is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water to 1 degree centigrade.
When completely broken down in the body, a gram of CHO yields about 4 kcal of energy; a gram of CHON also yields 4 kcal; and a gram of FAT yields 9 kcal.
Alcohol contributes 29 kcal that can be used for energy.2
Fat, therefore, has a greater energy density than either CHO or protein.
CALORIE - a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food(kcalories per gram).
Sample problem:
Calculate the total energy available from the given food and the percentage of kcalories each of the energy nutrients contributes to the total.A.A sandwich having 23 g CHO, 5 g CHON and 5 gram of fat per serving.B.One slice of bread with one tablespoon of peanut butter on it contains 16 grams CHO, 7 grams protein, and 9 grams fat.
Factors Affecting an Individual’s Calorie Need
1.Age and growth2.Gende3.Climate4.Sleep5.Activity6.Feve7.Illness
1.Alcohol2.Pigments3.Additives – preservatives, flavors and colors4.Phytochemicals non-nutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biologicalactivity in the body.
 Ex: lycopene in tomatoes, allylic sulfites in garlic, and lignans in wheat.
1.Pharmafoods - food or nutrient that claims medical or health benefits related to prevention andtreatment of disease.2.Functional foods - are foods or ingredients that have been modified to provide a health benefiting beyond their nutrient contributions.3.Designer foods - are processed foods that are supplemented with food ingredients naturallyrich in disease-preventing substances. This may involve genetic engineering of food.4.Nutraceutical - are products that may be considered a food or part of a food and providesmedical or health benefits.5.Organic foods - are products that are grown without manufactured fertilizers or pesticides.
– the food and drink that a person regularly consumed
2 Forms of Diet:
1. Special diet - a selection of food based on health conditions or disease management goals.
 Examples: low calorie diet for weight control, low salt diet for control of blood pressure
.2. Balance diet- provides the correct amount of essential nutrients. 
Factors Influencing Food Habits and Selection of Food Stuffs
1.Habit and preference- The selection of food is tied to a person’s routine and practices. Taste, texture,and appearance also mainly dictate an individual’s food options.2.Cost, availability, and convenience- People select foods which they can afford to buy, which arereadily available, and do not require much time to prepare or cook. In today’s modern lifestyle, foodsthat are fast and delicious are frequently chosen.3.Culture and tradition- Each area of the world and every region of a country had own typical foods andways of combining them into meals. Religious rules about foods can further dictate the composition of 3

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