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Structural And Functional Properties of Carbohydrates

Structural And Functional Properties of Carbohydrates

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Published by roncv
I have parts of the essay from various websites including wikipedia. Hope this helps.
I have parts of the essay from various websites including wikipedia. Hope this helps.

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Published by: roncv on Jan 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Sharon. C. Varghese08FA107II-BIOTECH ‘B’
 The term
was originally used to describe compounds that wereliterally "hydrates of carbon" because they had the empirical formula CH
O.In recent years, carbohydrates have been classified on the basis of theirstructures, not their formulas. They are now defined as
 polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones
. Among the compounds that belong to this family arecellulose, starch, glycogen, and most sugars. There are three classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides,and polysaccharides. The
are white, crystalline solids
that contain a single aldehyde or ketone functional group. They aresubdivided into two classes
on the basis of whether they are aldehydes or ketones. They are also classified as a triose,tetrose, pentose, hexose, or heptose on the basis of whether they containthree, four, five, six, or seven carbon atoms.With only one exception, the monosaccharides are optically activecompounds. Although both D and L isomers are possible, most of themonosaccharides found in nature are in the D configuration. Structures forthe D and L isomer of the simplest aldose, glyceraldehyde, are shown below.D-Glyceraldehyde L-Glyceraldehyde
 The Basic Structure of Monosaccharides
 The structures of many monosaccharides were first determined byEmil Fischer in the 1880s and 1890s and are still written accordingto a convention he developed. The Fischer projection representswhat the molecule would look like if its three-dimensional structurewere projected onto a piece of paper. By convention, Fischerprojections are written vertically, with the aldehyde or ketone at thetop. The -OH group on the second-to-last carbon atom is written onthe right side of the skeleton structure for the D isomer and on theleft for the L isomer. Fischer projections for the two isomers of glyceraldehyde are shown below.D-GlyceraldehydeL-Glyceraldehyde
 These Fischer projections can be obtained from the skeletonstructures shown above by imaging what would happen if youplaced a model of each isomer on an overhead projector so that theCHO and CH
OH groups rested on the glass and then looked at theimages of these models that would be projected on a screen.
 The basic feature that makes an aldose different from a ketose is theposition of the carbonyl group of the monosaccharide. As seen below, analdose has the carbonyl group at Carbon #1 (affording an aldehyde) while aketose has the carbonyl group at Carbon #2 (affording a ketone).For an aldose the carbonyl carbon is always carbon-1. When the aldose isdrawn in a fisher projection (as above) you would then continue to numberthe carbons as you go down the chain. For a ketose the numbering rules aresimilar. Therefore, the ketose above has the ketone at carbon-2, as will anyketoses that you need to worry about for this class. The (HCOH)n simply represents more hydroxyl substituted carbons in themonosaccharide structure. The total number of carbons can be used toclassify the aldoses and ketoses by using Aldo- or Keto- followed bynumerical prefixes attached to an -ose. The above sugars are all "D". Therefore, the hydroxyl group on theasymmetric carbon furthest from the carbonyl group is to the 'right' in thefisher projection. An "L" sugar would have the opposite stereochemistry atthat carbon.

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