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Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and Meiosis

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Published by sandsphilip
AS BIOLOGY
AS BIOLOGY

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Published by: sandsphilip on Jan 16, 2010
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01/14/2013

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Cell Division
All Organisms Consist of Cells and Arise from Preexisting Cells
Mitosis is the process by which new cells are generated.
Meiosis is the process by which gametes are generated forreproduction.
 The Cell Cycle Represents All Phases in the Life of a Cell
DNA replication (S phase) must precede mitosis, so that all daughtercells receive the same complement of chromosomes as the parent cell.
 The gap phases separate mitosis from S phase. This is the time whenmolecular signals mediate the switch in cellular activity.
Mitosis involves the separation of copied chromosomes into separatecells
Unregulated Cell Division Can Lead to Cancer
Cell-cycle checkpoints normally ensure that DNA replication andmitosis occur only when conditions are favorable and the process isworking correctly.
Mutations in genes that encode cell-cycle proteins can lead tounregulated growth, resulting in tumor formation and ultimatelyinvasion of cancerous cells to other organs. TERMINOLOGY
C hromosome
composed of DNA and protein (histones) all tightly wrapped up inone package
duplicated chromosomes are connected by a centromere
Each chromosome has a centromere and two chromatids
 They are called sister chromatids
 Tip of the chromatid is called telomere
chromosomes exists in a diploid organism as homologous pairEDEXCEL AS BIOLOGY | SOJI PHILIP.BIOLOGY TUTOR
 
Example
- an organism is 2n = 4.
Chromosomes 1 & 2 are homologouschromosomes
Chromosomes 3 & 4 are homologouschromosomes
Chromosomes 1 & 3 came from the mother
Chromosomes 2 & 4 came from the fatherEDEXCEL AS BIOLOGY | SOJI PHILIP.BIOLOGY TUTOR
 
 The Cell Cycle
G1
- first gap
S
- DNA synthesis(replication)
G2
- second gap
M
- mitosis
mitosis
- nuclear/chemical events resulting in two daughter nuclei whichhave identical genetic material to each other and to the mother cell
cytokinesis
- division of the cytoplasm. This usually occurs with mitosis, butin some organisms this is not so
Mitosis
 The stages of the cell cycle can be broken down into six stages:
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
Interphase
It is the "resting" or non-mitotic portion of the cellcycle.
It is comprised of G1, S, and G2 stages of the cellcycle.
DNA is replicated during the S phase of InterphaseEDEXCEL AS BIOLOGY | SOJI PHILIP.BIOLOGY TUTOR

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