Muhammad Farooq Zia(2005-CE-44)
WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
2.Conveyance of irrigation water (Canals)3.Distribution (water courses ) and Application (Irrigation methods ) of irrigation4.Drainage of excessive water through drains
Importance of Irrigation:Question:
Why irrigation is required?
We know the water requirements for crops vary from place to place depending uponthe nature of crops and site. In some areas there is no need of irrigation because theconditions are fulfilled by the natural resources (rainfall etc).Most of the areas of the earth are situated in arid zones (less than 15'' of mean annual rainfall)and even in humid zones (greater than 30'' of mean annual rainfall). The rainfall is notdistributed evenly. So it is only possible to use artificial means (supplying channel) to provide water for more cultivation.In Pakistan the annual rainfall ranges from 75 mm to 800 mm. So irrigation becomes anecessity to provide,
Sufficient amount of water in desirable seasons(ii)Period of requirement ( Time when water is required)(iii)Desirable amount of water for sufficient type of cropsThus the necessity of irrigation can be summarized in the following four points,1.Less rainfall (Need fulfill through artificial supply )2.Non-uniform rainfall (through dam , requirement is fulfilled at the need time crop)3.Commercial crops with additional water ( more water is required for cash crops e.g.Sugar cane , tobacco, rice )4.Controlled water supply (By the construction of proper distribution system the yieldof crop may be increased)
Necessity of Irrigation:Question:
What are the factors which govern the necessity of irrigation?
Throughout the crop period adequate quantities of water is required near the rootzone of the plants for their growth. At times during the crop period the rainfall may not beadequate to fulfill the water requirement. The intensity of rainfall is practically uncertain and beyond the control of human power and it may not be well distributed throughout the cropseason or the culturable area. So, irrigation becomes absolutely necessary to fulfill the water requirement of crops. The following are the factors which govern the necessity of irrigation,
When the seasonal rainfall is less than the minimum requirement for the satisfactory growthof crops, the irrigation system is essential.
(b)Uneven Distribution of Rainfall: