Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
148Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Irrigation Engineering Part 1

Irrigation Engineering Part 1

Ratings: (0)|Views: 11,344 |Likes:
Published by Sajid Nazir
Irrigation Engineering,Irrigation,Engineering
Irrigation Engineering,Irrigation,Engineering

More info:

Published by: Sajid Nazir on Jan 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/10/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Muhammad Farooq Zia(2005-CE-44)
 
Compiled
WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
CED-401
Irrigation:
The process of artificial application of water to the soil for the growth of agricultural crops isknown as irrigation.
Introduction about Irrigation:
It is practically a science of planning and designing of the water supply system for theagricultural land to protect the crops from bad effects of drought or low rainfall. It includesthe construction of weirs or dams, barrages or canal system for the regular supply of water tothe cultivable lands.There are three essential requirements of plant growth,
1. Heat 2. Light 3. Moisture
In England the one of three essential requirements is available that is moisture, which meansirrigation is not required due to sufficient rainfall. But in Pakistan the first two of the threeessential requirements of plant growth that is light and heat is present in large amount but thethird (moisture) is required due to insufficient rainfall . Hence Irrigation is supplementary torainfall, when the rainfall is either deficient or comes irregularly or at unseasonable times asin Pakistan.
Components of the Irrigation System or Irrigation System Network:
The main components of an irrigation system are listed below,1. Dam /Barrage2. Canal Head regulator 3. Main canal4. Branch Canal5. Distributory canal6. Minor canal7. Water course (W.C)The layout of irrigation network is shown on next page.
LAYOUT OF IRRIGATION NETWORK 
1
 
Muhammad Farooq Zia(2005-CE-44)
 
Compiled
WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
CED-401
Phases of Irrigation Engineering:
There are four stages of Irrigation Engineering,1.Storage (Dams, Reservoirs) or Diversion (Barrages)
2
RIVER 
 
 
MAI   N C A NA
BRANCH CANAL
DI   S RI  B U ORY
MINOR W.C = WATER COURSEW.CW.CW.CFIELD
OUTLET
DAMBARRAGEOFWM = ON FARM WATER MANAGEMENT
OFWMIRRIGATION SYSTEM
 
Muhammad Farooq Zia(2005-CE-44)
 
Compiled
WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
CED-401
2.Conveyance of irrigation water (Canals)3.Distribution (water courses ) and Application (Irrigation methods ) of irrigation4.Drainage of excessive water through drains
Importance of Irrigation:Question:
 
Why irrigation is required?
Answer:
We know the water requirements for crops vary from place to place depending uponthe nature of crops and site. In some areas there is no need of irrigation because theconditions are fulfilled by the natural resources (rainfall etc).Most of the areas of the earth are situated in arid zones (less than 15'' of mean annual rainfall)and even in humid zones (greater than 30'' of mean annual rainfall). The rainfall is notdistributed evenly. So it is only possible to use artificial means (supplying channel) to provide water for more cultivation.In Pakistan the annual rainfall ranges from 75 mm to 800 mm. So irrigation becomes anecessity to provide,
(i)
Sufficient amount of water in desirable seasons(ii)Period of requirement ( Time when water is required)(iii)Desirable amount of water for sufficient type of cropsThus the necessity of irrigation can be summarized in the following four points,1.Less rainfall (Need fulfill through artificial supply )2.Non-uniform rainfall (through dam , requirement is fulfilled at the need time crop)3.Commercial crops with additional water ( more water is required for cash crops e.g.Sugar cane , tobacco, rice )4.Controlled water supply (By the construction of proper distribution system the yieldof crop may be increased)
Necessity of Irrigation:Question:
 
What are the factors which govern the necessity of irrigation?
Answer:
Throughout the crop period adequate quantities of water is required near the rootzone of the plants for their growth. At times during the crop period the rainfall may not beadequate to fulfill the water requirement. The intensity of rainfall is practically uncertain and beyond the control of human power and it may not be well distributed throughout the cropseason or the culturable area. So, irrigation becomes absolutely necessary to fulfill the water requirement of crops. The following are the factors which govern the necessity of irrigation,
(a)Insufficient Rainfall:
When the seasonal rainfall is less than the minimum requirement for the satisfactory growthof crops, the irrigation system is essential.
(b)Uneven Distribution of Rainfall:
3

Activity (148)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
Yasir Khan added this note
Like this
Yasir Khan liked this
Noor Muhammad added this note
very informative.
Noor Muhammad liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Singaram Velu liked this
Muruga Nandhan liked this
Mirza Waqar Baig liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->