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Ecoshell 1
David B SouthEdited by Freda ParkerIllustrated by Merrisa Ramirez177 Dome Park Place Italy, TX 76651www.monolithic.comdome@monolithic.com(972) 483-7423
Second Edition
David B SouthEdited by Freda Parker
Ecoshell 1
David B. South is president of Monolithic, Inc. and chairman of the Domes For The World Foundation(DFTW).Monolithic, Inc. is a family of companies with a mutual goal: to improve the lives of people worldwidethrough the introduction and construction of Monolithic Domes and Monolithic EcoShells, for personal andpublic use. DFTW is the newest member of that family.
Established in 2006, DFTW has been registered as a nonprot 501(c)(3) with federal tax status.
Domes For The World Mission Statement: DFTW will initiate and coordinate efforts to alleviate housingshortages in struggling cultures and impoverished lands. We will seek grants and donations to fund importantprojects worldwide. We will train local crews in our construction methods and technology.© 2000, 2007 by Monolithic Dome InstituteAll rights reserved. First edition 2000. Second edition 2007Printed in the USAThe UniShell is an EcoShell I with a diameter of 20 feet and a living areaof 314 square feet, suitable for family habitation in developing nations.
Many countries beyond the United States
can benet from the construction and use of 
EcoShells.Monolithic created this step-by-step manu-al and illustrated it with cartoon-like drawingsso that all workers -- regardless of what theirnative language may be -- can learn and usethese instructions to complete an EcoShell I.An EcoShell’s construction process is amodern adaptation of the building of the Pan-theon and thousands of other domes, erectedover the centuries. The ancients built them bypiling mounds of earth or by creating large,false works of timber in the shape of a dome.They then covered these forms with brick,stone or a monolithic layer of concrete. Oncethe covering settled or set, they removed theforms.
Monolithic has substituted an inatable
Airform for the earth work or false work. Toconstruct an EcoShell, concrete and rebar areplaced on the outside of the Airform. (Thisdiffers from the construction of a MonolithicDome; it calls for rebar and concrete on theinside of the Airform.)EcoShells built for habitation in develop-ing areas with desert-like or tropical climatesare not insulated; nor do they usually need tobe. But they may need roof coatings. Never-theless, EcoShells make super-strong dwell-
ings, impervious to re, tornadoes, hurricanes,
earthquakes, and termites. They can be builtby native labor for a fraction of the cost of any comparable structure.We estimated that a single Airform can beused to build more than a hundred buildings,thus making the cost of forming negligible.Because the EcoShell is a thin shell, its actualvolume of concrete is very small -- far lessthan that used in conventional buildings (seetable).The EcoShell is perfect for any type of building that doesn’t require insulation. (Note:In climates requiring insulation, the uninsu-lated EcoShell should not be substituted foran insulated Monolithic Dome.)So, in economically developed nations,particularly those with temperate or coldclimates, it’s ideal for garages, small ware-houses, sheds, storage, grain storage, etc. --but not housing.However, in developing countries withequatorial climates, EcoShells can providesuitable, practical and affordable housing.The EcoShell’s construction method hasalso been used to build bridges over smallrivers and streams. We here at Monolithicthink that its applications are virtuallyunlimited and that, in the future, more ideasfor this construction procedure will be gen-erated and implemented.
Monolithic EcoShells Solve World Hous-ing Problems
The United Nations has determined thatan average family habitation in developingareas needs to be about 28 square meters or302 square feet.
One EcoShell design, the UniShell, ts
that bill perfectly. The UniShell has a diam-
eter of 20 feet and a living area of approxi
-mately 314 square feet.
Its construction, including the oor and
dome shell, requires less than eight yards of reinforced concrete -- or 64 sacks of cementfor a cost of about $320. The price of theaggregate will vary from place to place,but assuming that it’s about $10 per yard,that adds another $80. The 1,250 pounds of rebar will cost about $375. So the total costof the materials for a UniShell home, thatwill last for generations, is about $800.(Cost does not include labor, windows, doors,
exterior coating, interior nishing.)
In countries such as the Union of South
Africa, India, Pakistan, Korea, Mexico, Ghana,
Philippines, Honduras and others, the need forlow-cost housing is staggering. Housing short-ages range from 500,00 to 1,000,000 in each.So the need for structures is obvious, andthe solution is the UniShell. Unfortunately,there is a missing part to that equation: money.For that reason, in 2006 we established
Domes For The World (DFTW), a nonprot
organization determined to promote practi-cal, affordable and safe housing in developingnations. To that end, DFTW actively seeksgrants, contributions and funding.
Monolithic’s Promise
We want to support you in your construc-tion goals. Our website www.monolithic.comis a carefully maintained source of informa-tion, that can answer many questions about thenature and construction of Monolithic Domes,Monolithic Crenospheres and MonolithicEcoShells.But you are also welcome to contact us withyour questions and concerns.The Monolithic Dome InstitutePhone: (972) 483-7423
Fax: (972) 483-6662
Email: dome@monolithic.com
Ecoshell 1
Conventional buildings require 200% to 300% more concrete, 300% to 400% more rein-forcing bar and double the labor of comparably sized EcoShells. Ironically, EcoShells arefar stronger and better able to withstand natural disasters.
David B South

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