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FM 1–20_MILITARY HISTORY OPERATIONS_3 February 2003

FM 1–20_MILITARY HISTORY OPERATIONS_3 February 2003

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Published by manuals&manuals
Field Manual (FM) 1–20, Military History Operations, is applicable to all Army military history
offices, military history units, and military history operations of major tactical and support commands
generally at corps level and below. FM 1–20 provides basic doctrine describing the roles, relationships,
organizations, and responsibilities of Army component command historians, historians, unit
historical officers, and military history detachment (MHD) members in the United States Army. It
describes, but does not extensively cover, historians and historical offices of units at echelons above
corps and at the joint level. It is designed to provide historians, unit historical officers, commanders,
and staffs the methods to preserve and document the history of the U.S. Army. It explains how the
Army conducts military history operations during wartime, for both deployed forces in the combat theater
and those units supporting the operation. The Army has responded to numerous contingencies or
military operations other than war in recent years, and this FM provides doctrine on conducting military
history operations during such contingencies. It also provides commanders doctrinal guidance on
the employment of organic military history assets as well as separate military history units.
The primary users of this manual are force commanders, military history professionals, soldiers
assigned the additional duty of unit historical officer, and soldiers assigned to MHDs.The manual provides
guidance derived from regulations and other sources and gives techniques for the execution of
military history operations. It reflects lessons learned in past operations and theories tested at the combat
training centers.
M i l i t a ry history is the coll e c t i ve memory of a unit or an entire armed forc e . Its use by units
and individuals can teach valuable lessons from their recent past or provide unique insight
into more distant times. This enhances unit perf o rmance and increases esprit de corp s .T h e
statement by ph i l o s o pher George Sa n t ay a n a , “Those who do not learn from history are
c ondemned to repeat it,” has haunting implica t i ons in the pro fe s s i on of arm s . G e n e ra l
George S. Pa t t on ,J r. ,s t a t e d , “To be a successful soldier, you must know history. ” A wise soldier
learns from the past, both the successes and the failure s . Military history is that link.
Field Manual (FM) 1–20, Military History Operations, is applicable to all Army military history
offices, military history units, and military history operations of major tactical and support commands
generally at corps level and below. FM 1–20 provides basic doctrine describing the roles, relationships,
organizations, and responsibilities of Army component command historians, historians, unit
historical officers, and military history detachment (MHD) members in the United States Army. It
describes, but does not extensively cover, historians and historical offices of units at echelons above
corps and at the joint level. It is designed to provide historians, unit historical officers, commanders,
and staffs the methods to preserve and document the history of the U.S. Army. It explains how the
Army conducts military history operations during wartime, for both deployed forces in the combat theater
and those units supporting the operation. The Army has responded to numerous contingencies or
military operations other than war in recent years, and this FM provides doctrine on conducting military
history operations during such contingencies. It also provides commanders doctrinal guidance on
the employment of organic military history assets as well as separate military history units.
The primary users of this manual are force commanders, military history professionals, soldiers
assigned the additional duty of unit historical officer, and soldiers assigned to MHDs.The manual provides
guidance derived from regulations and other sources and gives techniques for the execution of
military history operations. It reflects lessons learned in past operations and theories tested at the combat
training centers.
M i l i t a ry history is the coll e c t i ve memory of a unit or an entire armed forc e . Its use by units
and individuals can teach valuable lessons from their recent past or provide unique insight
into more distant times. This enhances unit perf o rmance and increases esprit de corp s .T h e
statement by ph i l o s o pher George Sa n t ay a n a , “Those who do not learn from history are
c ondemned to repeat it,” has haunting implica t i ons in the pro fe s s i on of arm s . G e n e ra l
George S. Pa t t on ,J r. ,s t a t e d , “To be a successful soldier, you must know history. ” A wise soldier
learns from the past, both the successes and the failure s . Military history is that link.

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Published by: manuals&manuals on Jan 16, 2010
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03/24/2014

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This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).
 
Field ManualHeadquartersNo.120Department of the ArmyWashington,DC,3 February 2003
FM 1–20
i
MILITARY HISTORY OPERATIONS
Contents
PagePREFACE
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Chapter1CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Use of Military History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Commanders and Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Morale and Esprit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Public and Command Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Development of the U.S. Army Historical Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2Early Years of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2Post–Civil War Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2Spanish-American War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2Korean War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3Vietnam War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3Post–Vietnam War Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3Persian Gulf War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4Outlook for the Twenty-first Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4Military History Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4Execute Command Historical Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4Collect Historical Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5Advise on Historical Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5Advise on Preparing Historical Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5Coordinate Matters Relating to Historical Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
2ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES AT HIGHER ECHELONS
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-0Chief of Military History/Center of Military History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-0Military History Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-0Combat Studies Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1Combatant Command Historians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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