The study of vibrations generated by mechanical structures and electrical machinesare very important. The advent of machines and processes that are more and more complexand the ever increasing exploitation and production costs have favored the emergence of several application fields requiring vibration analysis. Among these application fields, wefind machine monitoring, modal analysis, quality control, and environment tests. Thesefunctions are used in fields such as aeronautics, space industry, automotive industry, energyproduction, civil engineering, and audio equipment.The signal processing application described here uses a laser-based vibrometer inorder to analyze the vibrations exhibited by mechanical systems. This technique can beused in the numerous applications mentioned above. The problem is to develop anintelligent system that has the ability to determine the system conditions based on aclassification of the possible vibration signatures, detect changes in the vibration signature,and analyze their trends.The classification of the various possible vibration signatures requires a prioriknowledge of the mechanical system under healthy conditions as well as for the variousfault conditions; when possible a mathematical model of the system should be provided.The latter is often crucial for the good interpretation of the observations, since it predictsthe dynamic behavior of the structure and thus the healthy vibration signature.Vibration spectra are i
n general “peaky” due to either the
periodic nature of the
system‟s excitation or to the natural
resonance properties of the mechanical system.Changes in a vibration signal can result from a variation of the amplitude, frequency,and/or phase of one or many of the components. Moreover, new peaks may add to theexisting spectrum, or some peaks may fade out. Changes can also appear in the form of short transients or spikes in the time domain. At the extreme, if the vibrations become sostrong that the structure actually starts to move, then the overall average level of vibrationwould change, that is, a DC component would appear.