After studying this unit'you should be able to
check whether a conicoid is central or not if you are given its equation;
obtain standard fms of an ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one sheet and hyperboloidof two sheets;trace the standard forms of the above mentioned three conicoids;obtain tangent lines and tangent planes at a point to a central conicoid;check whether a plane is a tangent plane to
conicoid or not;use the fact that a planar section of
central conicoid is a conic.
In the last unit you saw that a point P is called a centre of a conicoid F (x, y,
0 if its coordinates satisfy a system of linear equations (see Equations
In this unit we define
centre geometrically and then see the relationshipbetween the geometrically and analytical defections. Let us consider the conicoid
given by ax2
Let P(x,, y,,
be a point on the conicoid. Then you can see that P (-x,, -y,,
also lies on the conicoid. This means that
is symmetric about the origin
Because of this property
is called the centre of the conicoid (see Fig.
The pair of points
are symmetric about the centre
symmetric with respect to
if, when theorigin is shifted to P, the transfom~ed o~?icoid
is symmetric with respect to theorigin.Let us formally define a centre. To do so let us first see what we mean by symmetry.
A point P is called
is symmetric withrespect to P.Using the definition above we can easily see that the origin O(0, 0,
is a centre ofthe spehre.Let us consider an example now.
how that the origin is the only centre of the coneax2
From the definition you can see that the origin is a centre of the sphere.
let us take another point
which is non-zero. Sh~fting he origin to