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Army FM3 04X203 Fundamentals of Flight

Army FM3 04X203 Fundamentals of Flight

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Published by: sandglasspatrol on Jan 17, 2010
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FM 3-04.203
Fundamentals of Flight
May 2007
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION
:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Headquarters, Department of the Army
 
This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online(www.us.army.mil)and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine
Digital Library at(www.train.army.mil).
 
*FM 3-04.203
Field ManualHeadquartersFM 3-04.203Department of the ArmyWashington, D.C. 7 May 2007
Fundamentals of Flight
Contents
Page
PREFACE ...........................................................................................................xiv
Chapter 1
THEORY OF FLIGHT......................................................................................... 1-1
Section I – Physical Laws and Principles of Airflow .................................... 1-1
Newton’s Laws of Motion ................................................................................... 1-1
Fluid Flow ........................................................................................................... 1-2
Vectors and Scalars ........................................................................................... 1-3
Section II – Flight Mechanics .......................................................................... 1-6
Airfoil Characteristics.......................................................................................... 1-6
Airflow and Reactions in the Rotor System........................................................ 1-8
Rotor Blade Angles........................................................................................... 1-11
Rotor Blade Actions.......................................................................................... 1-12
Helicopter Design and Control ......................................................................... 1-17
Section III – In-Flight Forces ......................................................................... 1-27
Total Aerodynamic Force ................................................................................. 1-27
Lift and Lift Equation......................................................................................... 1-28
Drag.................................................................................................................. 1-29
Centrifugal Force and Coning .......................................................................... 1-30
Torque Reaction and Antitorque Rotor (Tail Rotor) ......................................... 1-32
Balance of Forces............................................................................................. 1-33
Section IV – Hovering..................................................................................... 1-35
Airflow in Hovering Flight.................................................................................. 1-35
Ground Effect ................................................................................................... 1-35
Translating Tendency....................................................................................... 1-38
Section V – Rotor in Translation................................................................... 1-39
Airflow in Forward Flight................................................................................... 1-39
Translational Lift ............................................................................................... 1-44
Transverse Flow Effect..................................................................................... 1-45
Effective Translational Lift ................................................................................ 1-45
Autorotation ...................................................................................................... 1-46
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
*This publication supersedes FM 1-202, 23 February 1983; FM 1-203, 03 October 1988; TC 1-201, 20
7 May 2007 FM 3-04.203
iJanuary 1984; and TC 1-204, 27 December 1988.

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