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Agriculture and Development

Agriculture and Development

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Published by: Daisy on Jan 18, 2010
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01/06/2013

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 AGRICULTURE
is closely linked to many concerns, includingbiodiversity loss, global warming and water availability.Despite significant increases in productivity, malnutrition andpoverty still plague many parts of the world. This InternationalAssessment of Agricultural Science and Technology forDevelopment (IAASTD) focuses on how to make better use of agricultural science, knowledge and technology to reducehunger and poverty, improve rural livelihoods, and fosterequitable and sustainable development.
Agriculture and Development
 A summary of the International Assessment on Agricultural Scienceand Technology for Development
 
For decades,agricultural sciencehas focused onboosting productionthrough thedevelopment of new technologies.It has achieved enormous yield gains as well as lower costs for large-scale farming. But this success has come at a high environmental cost.Furthermore, it has not solved the social and economic problems of thepoor in developing countries, which have generally benefited the leastfrom this boost in production.Today’s world is a place of uneven development, unsustainable use of natural resources, worsening impact of climate change, and continuedpoverty and malnutrition. Poor food quality and diets are partlyresponsible for the increase of chronic diseases like obesity and heartdisease. Agriculture is closely linked to these concerns, including theloss of biodiversity, global warming and water availability.The International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology forDevelopment (IAASTD) focuses on agriculture as the provider of food,nutrition, health, environmental services, and economic growth that isboth sustainable and socially equitable. This assessment recognizes thediversity of agricultural ecosystems and of local social and culturalconditions.It is time to fundamentally rethink the role of agricultural knowledge,science and technology in achieving equitable development andsustainability. The focus must turn to the needs of small farms in diverseecosystems and to areas with the greatest needs. This means improvingrural livelihoods, empowering marginalized stakeholders, sustainingnatural resources, enhancing multiple benefits provided by ecosystems,considering diverse forms of knowledge, and providing fair marketaccess for farm products.Biotechnologies are techniques that use livingorganisms to make or modify a product. Some
conventional biotechnologies
are well-accepted,such as fermentation for bread or alcoholproduction. Another example is plant and animalbreeding to create varieties with bettercharacteristics or increased yields.
Modern biotechnologies
change the genetic codeof living organisms using a technique called geneticmodification. These technologies have been widelyadopted in industrial applications such as enzymeproduction.Other applications remain contentious, such as theuse of genetically modified (GM) crops created byinserting genes from other organisms. Some GMcrops can bring yield gains in some places anddeclines in others. Because new techniques arerapidly being developed, longer-term assessmentsof environmental and health risks and benefits tendto lag behind discoveries. This increasesspeculation and uncertainty.The possibility of 
patenting 
genetic modificationscan attract investment in agricultural research. Butit also tends to concentrate ownership of resources,drive up costs, inhibit independent research, andundermine local farming practices such as seed-saving that are especially important in developingcountries. It could also mean new liabilities, forexample if a genetically modified plant spreads tonearby farms.Many problems could be solved if biotechnologieswould focus on local priorities identified throughtransparent processes involving the full spectrum of stakeholders.
Can biotechnology help meet the growing demand for food?What challenges does agriculture face today?
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What are the pros and cons of bioenergy?
Bioenergy is heat, electricity, or transport fuel produced from plant oranimal materials. Millions of people still depend on traditional bioenergylike wood or charcoal for cooking and heating, which can beunsustainable and pose health risks.In many developed countries, the rising costs of fossil fuels, as well asconcerns about energy security and climate change, are generating newinterest in other forms of bioenergy. For example, new liquid biofuels aremade from crops or from agricultural and forestry residues. However,energy is needed to grow, transport and process bioenergy crops,causing considerable debate about their net benefit in terms of greenhouse gas reduction. Another major concern is that using crop landto produce fuel could raise food prices, drive small-scale farmers off theirland and prolong hunger in the world.
Electricity
and
heat
can also be obtained from plant residues and animalwastes, either by burning them directly or by first producing biogas thenburning it. These renewable energy sources usually produce lessgreenhouse gas emissions than other fuels. They can be effective, forinstance in places not connected to the electric grid.Decision-makers should compare all forms of bioenergy to othersustainable energy options and carefully weigh full social, environmentaland economic costs against realistically achievable benefits. Decisions inthis context are heavily influenced by local conditions.
Biotechnologies are alreadywidely used in agriculture.
 
Many effective innovations are generated locally, based on theknowledge and expertise of indigenous and local communities ratherthan on formal scientific research. Traditional farmers embody ways of life beneficial to the conservation of biodiversity and to sustainable ruraldevelopment.Local and traditional knowledge has been successfully built into severalareas of agriculture, for example in the domestication of wild trees, inplant breeding, and in soil and water management. Scientists shouldwork more closely with local communities and traditional practicesshould have a higher profile in science education. Efforts should bemade to archive and evaluate the knowledge of local people and toprotect it under fairer international intellectual property legislation.
Can traditional knowledge contribute to agriculture?
Although food production has increased in recent decades, many peopleremain
undernourished
, a problem accounting for 15% of global disease.Many population groups still face protein, micronutrient and vitamindeficiency. Meanwhile,
obesity
and
chronic diseases
are increasingacross the world because of people eating too much of the wrong foods.Agricultural research and policies should be devised to increase dietarydiversity, improve food quality, and promote better food processing,preservation and distribution.Global trade and growing consumer awareness have increased the needfor proactive food safety systems. Health concerns include the presenceof pesticide residues, heavy metals, hormones, antibiotics, andadditives in the food system, as well as risks related to large-scalelivestock farming.Worldwide, agriculture accounts for at least 170 000 work-related deathseach year. Accidents with equipment like tractors and harvesters causemany of these deaths. Other important health hazards for agricultureworkers include noise, transmissible animal diseases, and exposure totoxic substances such as pesticides.Agriculture can contribute to the emergence and spread of infectiousdiseases. Therefore, robust surveillance, detection and responseprograms are critical across the food chain.
How is food production affecting health?How is climate change threatening agriculture?
Agriculture has contributed to climate change inmany ways, for instance through the conversionof forests to farmland and the release of greenhouse gases. Conversely, climate changenow threatens to irreversibly damage naturalresources on which agriculture depends.The effects of global warming are already visiblein much of the world. In some areas, moderatewarming can slightly increase crop yields. Butoverall, negative impacts will increasinglydominate. Floods and droughts become morefrequent and severe, which is likely to seriouslyaffect farm productivity and the livelihoods of rural communities, and increase the risk of conflicts over land and water. Also, climatechange encourages the spread of pests andinvasive species and may increase thegeographical range of some diseases.Some land use management approaches canhelp mitigate global warming. These includeplanting trees, restoring degraded land,conserving natural habitats, and improving soiland fertility management. Policy optionsinclude financial incentives to grow trees,reduce deforestation and develop renewableenergy sources. Agriculture and other ruralactivities must be integrated in futureinternational policy agreements on climatechange. However, since some changes in theclimate are now inevitable, adaptationmeasures are also imperative.
This text is a faithful summary, by GreenFacts, of the Synthesis Report of the International Assessment on Agricultural Scienceand Technology for development. A web version of this summary, along with the full IAASTD Synthesis Report,can be found on
www.greenfacts.org/en/agriculture-iaastd/
.

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