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Nondestructive test

Nondestructive test

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Published by Islam Abdelkarim

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Published by: Islam Abdelkarim on Jan 18, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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06/10/2013

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-1-
 
Contents
1Introduction3iquidL-1
 
- Dye penetrant inspection 3
 
7testingRadiographic-2
 
- x- ray (roentgen ray) radiographic. 8- Neutron radiographic 18- Neutron radiographic tutorial 22- computed tomography 23
 
36lectromagnetic testingE-3
 
- Magnetic flux leakage 37- Remote field testing 41-Eddy current testing 42- Magnetic microscopy 42
 
48ltra sonic testingU-4
 
- Phased array ultra sonic 50- Time of flight diffraction ultra sonic 51- Internal rotary inspection system 52- By line focus ultrasonic probe 53
 
References 54
 
-2-
 
Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing
(
NDT
), also called
nondestructive evaluation
(
NDE
) and
 nondestructive inspection
(
NDI
), is testing that does not destroy the test object. NDE is vital for constructing and maintaining all types of components and structures.To detect different defects such as cracking and corrosion, there are different methodsof testing available, such as X-ray (where cracks show up on the film) and ultrasound(where cracks show up as an echo blip on the screen). This article is aimed mainly atindustrial NDT, but many of the methods described here can be used to test the human body. In fact methods from the medical field, where there tends to be moredevelopment funding available, have often been adapted for industrial use, as was thecase with Phased array ultrasonics and Computed radiography.While destructive testing usually provides a more reliable assessment of the state of the test object, destruction of the test object usually makes this type of test morecostly to the test object's owner than nondestructive testing. Destructive testing is alsoinappropriate in many circumstances, such as forensic investigation. That there is atradeoff between the cost of the test and its reliability favors a strategy in which mosttest objects are inspected nondestructively; destructive testing is performed on asampling of test objects that is drawn randomly for the purpose of characterizing thetesting reliability of the nondestructive test.
 
The need for NDT
 
It is very difficult to weld or mold a solid object that has no risk of breaking inservice, so testing at manufacture and during use is often essential. During the processof molding a metal object, for example, the metal may shrink as it cools, and crack or introduce voids inside the structure. Even the best welders (and welding machines) donot make 100% perfect welds. Some typical weld defects that need to be found andrepaired are lack of fusion of the weld to the metal and porous bubbles inside theweld, both of which could cause a structure to break or a pipeline to rupture.During their service lives, many industrial components need regular nondestructivetests to detect damage that may be difficult or expensive to find by everyday methods.For example:
 
·
 
aircraft skins need regular checking to detect cracks;
 
·
 
underground pipelines are subject to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking;
 
·
 
 pipes in industrial plants may be subject to erosion and corrosion from the products they carry;
 
·
 
concrete structures may be weakened if the inner reinforcing steel is corroded;
 
·
 
 pressure vessels may develop cracks in welds;
 
·
 
the wire ropes in suspension bridges are subject to weather, vibration, and highloads, so testing for broken wires and other damage is important.Over the past centuries, swordsmiths, blacksmiths, and bell-makers would listen to thering of the objects they were creating to get an indication of the soundness of thematerial. The wheel-tapper would test the wheels of locomotives for the presence of 

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