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Classification Tests for Hydrocarbons

Classification Tests for Hydrocarbons

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Published by Anna Donato
Formal report for experiment about the CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS.

Shows different reactions of organic compounds heptane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, and toluene with several physical and chemical tests.

Group 3 2EMT

Dizon
*Donato
Dy
Enriquez
Fauni

Department of Medical Technology
Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Santo Tomas. 2009.
Formal report for experiment about the CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS.

Shows different reactions of organic compounds heptane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, and toluene with several physical and chemical tests.

Group 3 2EMT

Dizon
*Donato
Dy
Enriquez
Fauni

Department of Medical Technology
Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Santo Tomas. 2009.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Anna Donato on Jan 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/23/2014

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CLASSIFICATION TESTS FOR HYDROCARBONS 
AUTHORS:
Dizon, S.,
*Donato, A.K.,
Dy, A., Enriquez, K.B., Fauni, M.B.
ABSTRACT:
The organic compounds hexane, heptane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene,benzene, and toluene were subjected to different physical and chemical tests todifferentiate their intrinsic physical properties and chemical properties in terms of structure and behavior. The physical state, color, and odor were noted by simplephysical observation. Miscibility was tested by introducing a drop of the sample to 1 mlconcentrated H
2
SO
4
. Flammability was tested by placing 3-5 drops of the sample to anevaporating dish and lighting it with a match. Active unsaturation was tested using theBaeyer’s and Bromine test and aromaticity was determined by subjecting the organiccompounds to Nitration. Oxidation was tested by introducing 8 drops of 2% KMnO
4
solution and 3 drops of 10% NaOH solution to 4 drops of the sample organic compoundin a test tube. All organic compounds showed immiscibility in concentrated H
2
SO
4
andflammability in the ignition test. All but cyclohexane were not actively unsaturated. Allturned out to be aromatic compounds except cyclohexane and cyclohexene. All are notoxidized except cyclohexene.
I.)INTRODUCTION
Hydrocarbons are compoundsthat contain only carbon and hydrogenatoms. Hydrocarbons may be divided intotwo large classes namely: Saturatedhydrocarbons and Unsaturatedhydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons arethe simplest type of organic compounds.They are hydrocarbons in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds. An exampleof a saturated hydrocarbon is an alkane.Unsaturated hydrocarbons arehydrocarbons that contain one or morecarbon-carbon multiple bonds like doublebonds, triple bonds, or both. Saturated andUnsaturated hydrocarbons have similarphysical properties, but their chemicalproperties are different. Unsaturatedhydrocarbons are chemically more reactivethan saturated ones. This is because of thepresence of carbon-carbon multiple bondsin such compounds and these multiplebonds serve as locations were chemicalreactions can occur.
Fig. 1 (Unsaturated hydrocarbon)
 
Fig. 2 (Saturated hydrocarbon)
 
Fig. 3 (Summary of classification of organicompounds)
Hexane is an alkanehydrocarbon with a chemical formula of C
6
H
14
, molar mass of 86.18 g/mol, and aboiling point of 69°C. Isomers of hexaneare mostly non-reactive, and are frequentlyused as solvents in organic reactionsbecause they are very non-polar. They arecommon constituents of gasoline andleather products.
Fig. 4 (Structure of hexane)
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkanewith the molecular formula C
6
H
12
, molarmass of 84.160 g/mol, and boiling point of 80.74°C. It is used as a non-polar solventand a raw material for the production of adipic acid and caprolactam. Cyclohexaneis produced on an industrial scale byreacting benzene with hydrogen.
Fig. 5 (Structure of Cyclohexane
)
Cyclohexene is a cycloalkenewith a chemical formula of C
6
H
10
, molarmass of 82.143 g/mol, and a boiling pointof 82.98°C. It is not very stable upon longterm storage and exposure to light and airshould be distilled before use to eliminateperoxides. It has a very sharp smellresembling an oil refinery.
Fig. 6 (Structure of cyclohexene)
Benzene is an organicchemical compound with a molecularformula of C
6
H
6
, molar mass of 78.11g/mol, and a boiling point of 80.1°C. It isa colorless, highly flammable liquid with asweet smell. It is a known carcinogen,therefore its role as an additive in gasolineis now limited, though it is an important
 
industrial solvent and a precursor in theproduction of drugs, plastics, syntheticrubber, and dyes.
Fig. 7 (Structure of Benzene)
Toluene is an aromatichydrocarbon with a molecular formula of C
7
H
8
, molar mass of 92.14 g/mol, and aboiling point of 110.6°C. Toluene reacts asa normal aromatic hydrocarbon towardselectrophilic aromatic substitution. It is awater-insoluble liquid with a smell of paintthinners, and it is widely used as anindustrial feedstock and solvent.
Fig. 8 (Structure of Toluene)
Miscibility is the property of liquids to to mix in all proportions,therefore forming a homogenous solution.By contrast, substances are consideredimmiscible if in any proportion, they do notform a solution. In organic compounds,The miscibility is determined by the weightpercentage of the hydrocarbon chain. Thesolvent used in the experiment isconcentrated H
2
SO
4
. If a compound isunsaturated, it is said to be easilysulfonated, or possesses a functional groupcontaining oxygen, it will dissolve insulfuric acid. Alkanes, cycloalkanes, andtheir halogen derivatives are insoluble insulfuric acid. Simple aromatichydrocarbons and their halogen derivativesdo not undergo sulfonation and are alsoinsoluble in sulfuric acid. Nevertheless, thepresence of two or more alkyl groups onthe aromatic ring permits the compound tobe sulfonated easily. Many secondary andtertiary alcohols are dehydrated readily byconcentrated sulfuric acid, which results tothe formation of olefins which thenundergo polymerization. The polymersformed are insoluble in concentratedsulfuric acid and forms a distinct layer ontop of the acid.Flammability the measure of the extent to which a material or asubstance will support combustion. Thedegree of difficulty required to cause thecombustion of a substance is subject toquantification through fire testing orignition test. Vapor pressure is animportant parameter in determining theease of ignition of a substance or material.The higher the vapor pressure, the moreflammable vapor is evolved from a freeliquid surface at a given temperature.Many compounds are determined by thecharacteristics of their flame when theyburn. Aromatic hydrocarbons burn with ayellow, sooty flame due to their highcarbon content. Aliphatic hydrocarbonsburn with flames that are yellow, but lesssooty.

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