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Manual for LS-DYNA Wood Material Model 143
Section 1. THEORETICAL MANUAL
This section documents the theory of the wood material model in detail. It begins with an overview of wood behavior,followed by an overview of the formulation. Then detailed equations are provided for each feature of the model(elasticity, plasticity, hardening, damage, and rate effects). Data are also tabulated for southern yellow pine andDouglas fir that are needed to fit the model parameters. Throughout this report, numerous figures, particularly thoseof test data, are reproduced from the various references cited at the end of each caption.
1.1 BEHAVIOR OF WOOD
Wood is a variable material; however, certain trends are evident. Stiffness and strength properties vary as a functionof orientation between the longitudinal, tangential, and radial directions. Figure 1 helps to illustrate this point. Thelongitudinal direction is the fiber or grain direction. Stiffness and strength are greatest in the fiber direction. Thetangential and radial directions are transverse to the fiber direction, and tangential and perpendicular to the growthrings. For modeling purposes, the distinction between the tangential and radial directions is not always significant.Therefore, this manual uses the term
to the grain when no distinction is made between the radial andtangential directions, and
to the grain to describe the longitudinal direction.
Figure 1.Wood material properties vary with orientation. The wood material coordinate system does not necessarilycoincide with the board coordinate system.Source: American Society of Civil Engineers.
Loading wood at angles to the grain has a significant effect on strength, as demonstrated in figure 2 for Douglas fir.The data are indicated by the dots. Hankinson’s formula is indicated by the surface. This formula is discussed insection 1.4.
Section 1. Theoretical Manual - Manual for LS-DYNA Wood Material...file:///D:/Dragan/D%20I%20P%20L%20O%20M%20S%20K%20I/...1 of 916.12.2009 14:56