are the strengths parallel and perpendicular to the grain, respectively, and
is the shear strength.Seven criteria were evaluated for modeling the failure of wood. The theoretical form of each candidatecriterion and the graphical comparisons are given in appendix C. A reduced form of the Modified Hashincriterion was chosen for implementation for the following reasons:
Fits off-axis and uniaxial test data well.
Identifies mode of failure.
Allows wood to fail or yield in the perpendicular modes prior to catastrophic failure in the parallelmodes.
Produces a smooth surface in stress space for the parallel modes and a separate smooth surface for the perpendicular modes.
Failure strength predictions in the parallel modes are moderate in comparison with the extremestrengths predicted by some of the other criteria.
Failure strength predictions in the perpendicular (isotropic) plane are realistic under transformationof stress.
Provides the greatest flexibility (compared with other failure criteria) in modeling failure andyielding in the perpendicular modes.The analytical form of the Hashin criterion is different for the parallel and perpendicular modes.
For the parallel modes, the failure criterion is composed of two terms involving two of the five stressinvariants of a transversely isotropic material. These invariants are and . Thiscriterion predicts that the normal and shear stresses are mutually weakening (i.e., the presence of shear stressreduces the strength below that measured in the uniaxial stress tests). This form is equivalent to thatdiscussed in appendix C under Modified Hashin or Extended Yamada-Sun. Failure occurs when
For the perpendicular modes, the failure criterion is also composed of two terms involving two of the fivestress invariants of a transversely isotropic material. These invariants are
= s22 + s33 and. This form is similar to that discussed in appendix C under Modified Hashin, except thattwo of the three reported terms are retained (the parallel shear stress invariant term (
) in equation 172 isneglected). This is because its effect on perpendicular failure was not evaluated in appendix C and no testdata are available to aid in the evaluation. It is desirable to keep the failure criterion as simple as possibleunless measured data suggest otherwise. Failure occurs when
Failure Surface Plots
Four modes of failure are predicted: tension and compression failure parallel to the grain, and tension andcompression failure perpendicular to the grain. Parallel shear failure is a subset of the parallel modes and perpendicular shear failure is a subset of the perpendicular modes.