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Common Drugs Used in the Emergency

Common Drugs Used in the Emergency

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Published by hatem alsrour
Common Drugs Used in the Emergency - hatem alsrour - King Saud University - College of Nursing
Common Drugs Used in the Emergency - hatem alsrour - King Saud University - College of Nursing

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Published by: hatem alsrour on Jan 19, 2010
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07/29/2013

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Common drugs used in theEmergency
Routes of administrationIV
Intravenous administration is when the drug is given in liquid form directly intoa vein. This is oftendone by placing a venous catheter to allow easy administration.
IM
Direct injection into the muscle. Often a painful mode of administration, andprovides a slow routeof absorption.
PO
By mouth (Per Orum). Typically intermediate between IM and IV in speed of absorption. (is thistrue?)
PR
Rectal administration (Per Rectum). The rectum is actually a very quickmethod of drugadministration as the rectum is highly vascular. This route is often used inchildren.
ET
Certain drugs can be given down an endotracheal tube. The drugs are givenat 2-2.5 times normalIV dose. Drugs are followed with a saline bolus of ~10ml. The acronym for drugs that can go downan ET tube is ALONE:
A
– Atropine
L
– Lidocaine
O
– Oxygen
N
– Naloxone (Narcan)
E
– Epinephrine
This is solutiom are important in Emergency:
NS:
NS stands for Normal Saline, which is 0.9% Sodium Chloride, and is the usualfluid given to apatient who needs fluid due to dehydration. It is approximately isotonic.
LR:
LR stands for Lactated Ringers, which is Normal Saline with other electrolytes. Due to the presence of the other electrolytes, there is a limit tohow much can be administered within aspecific period of time.
D5, D10, D25 and D50:
The D stands for Dextrose, which is a stable form of glucose. This solution isgiven IV to give
 
the patient glucose. This is never given IM, as high concentrations of glucosecause tissue deathoutside the vasculature.
Indications
CommonDrugs
Anaphylaxis or cardiac arrest.
Adrenaline(Epinephrin)
Hypotension&shock 
Nor-epinephrin
antidysrhythmic
Adenosine
local anesthetic&antidysrhythmic
Lidocaine
Hypotension
Dopamine
Short term management of cardiac decompensation result from depressedcontractility
Dobutamin
slow conduction the heart( atrial-fibrillation).
Digoxin
slow the heart down in patients with certaintypes of tachycardias (atrial fibrillation).
Diltiazem(Cardizem)
Relief of pulmonary oedema associated with LVF
Frusemide
Severe pain or acute left ventricular failure
Diamorphine
Bradycardia&sever asthma
Atropine
thrombolytic agent. blood clots in patients withmyocardial infarction(heart attacks), non-hemorrhagic CVA’s (strokes)& pulmonary emboli
Streptokinase
anticoagulant
Heparin
analgesic
Morphine Sulfate
antidote to narcotic
Naloxone (Narcan)
anticonvulsant
Diazepam(valum)
Hypoglycaemia
Glucagon
Reversal of benzodiazepine induced respiratory depression
Flumazenil
diuretic
Furosemide (Lasix)
Ischemia chest pain
NTG
 
Side effectActionDoseRouteDruge
H.T.N-tachycardia
beta1, beta 2 & alphaagonist,cardiacstimulation, relax bronchial muscles0.01-0.2 mcg/kg/min
I.V&ETT
Epinephri
Bradyycardia-hyperglacemia-decrease urine output
Stimulates beta1 & alphaadrenergicreceptors; incr. Contractility & HR,vasoconstriction, incr SBP0.01-0.2 mcg/kg/min
I.V
Norepinephrin
S.O.B-Chest pressure
Interrupts reentry pathway throughAVnode; for PSVT100mcg/kg;max12mg
I.V
Adenosine
Confusion- decreaseliver function.
Suppress automaticity of conduction tissue,incr. elect. threshold of ventricle,20-50 mcg/kg/min
I.V&ETT
Lidocaine
Tachycardia-hyperglacemia
Stimulate adrenergic anddopaminergicreceptors, positive inotrope, renalvasodilation3-12 mcg/kg/min
I.V
Dopamine
H.T.N
Stimulate beta 1 receptors, incr.contractility &heart rate, minor effect on alph andbeta 2receptors3-10 mcg/kg/min
I.V
Dobutamin
Arrhythmia-N\VCardiac glycoside thate incr. cardiaccontractility Action(positiveinotropic)&slows conduction in the AVnode(negative dromotropic effects)0.5-1mgI.V
Digoxin
H.F- Arrhythmia-hypotensionProduce coronary vascular smoothmuscke relaxation& lower BP.slowHR.and AVnode conduction30-200mgI.V
Diltiazem(Cardizem)
Hypotension-nausea-GI_distrubuanceAn ultra short acting beta-adrenergic blocker used to lower BP&HR 20-50mgI.V
Frusemide
Hypotension-nausea-GI_distrubuancePrevent conversion of angiotensionI toangiotensionII resulte in dilation of arteries &veins.5-10mgI.V
Diamorphine
Urine retention-drymouth-blurred vision.
Anti-cholinergic agent; vagallyinducedsymptomatic bradycardia;symptomaticbradycardia refractory tooxygenation,ventilation&epinephrine0.02 mg/kg/dose;minimum dose0.1mg
I.V&ETT
Atropine
HemorrhageThrombolytic drugs thate breake downexisting clotes.250000unit over30minutI.V
Streptokinase

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