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Data Communication

Data Communication

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Published by ihsan278

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Published by: ihsan278 on Jan 19, 2010
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10/20/2010

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Data Communication
1.Understanding the basic hardware and software componentsrequired for the networking environment.
What is data communication?1.2 Recent historySince the early days of modern computing there has been a steadily increasing need for more sophisticated data transfer services.In the 1950s, the early computers were simple machines with ’Single-task’ operatingsystems.They typically had a single console, and data was entered either by cards, or on paper tape.In the 1960s, demand for large scale data entry grew, and the ’on-line’ batch system wasdeveloped. The operating systems were better, and allowed many terminals to beconnected to the same computer. These terminals typically would allow deferred dataentry - that is the files would not be updated until a ’batch’ of data was ready. The dataentry was often done during the day, the processing of the data at night.In the 1970s, on-line integrated systems were developed. These allowed terminals toaccess the files, as well as update them. Database technology allowed immediate displayof the effect of completed transactions. Integrated systems generated multipletransactions from single entries.Since the 1980s we have moved to distributed databases and processing. In the 80s and90s we see large machines - even the workstations have significant computing power.There are many more options for interconnecting the machines.
 Definition:So we can conclude that data communication is the study of transferring data or communicating data through modern devices from one point to the other. Definition 2: It is the exchange of data between two parties. Definition 3:The exchange of information between two or more than two parties is called datacommunication these parties can be computers humans, connecters etc.
Data communication = Data + communication
 
Data and its types
Data are raw facts and figures which are meaningless and not understandable.A.Digital Dataa.TextText data type may contain A-Z letters 0-9 Numbers and other specialcharacters. b.SoundIt entails audible beats.c.GraphicsIt contains all types of visual Data.B.Analogue DataThe type of data which contains continuous waves of physical changes inenvironment
Hardware Used in Networking Environment
1.NICThe Network Interface Card (NIC) provide the physical connection between thenetwork and the computer workstationThe function of a NIC is to connect a host device to the network medium. A NICis a printed circuit board that fits into the expansion slot on the motherboard or  peripheral device of a computer. The NIC is also referred to as a network adapter.On laptop or notebook computers a NIC is the size of a credit card. NICs are considered Layer 2 devices because each NIC carries a unique codecalled a MAC address. This address is used to control data communication for thehost on the network. More will be learned about the MAC address later. As thename implies, the network interface card controls host access to the medium.2.HUBHubs are actually multiport repeaters. In many cases, the difference between thetwo devices is the number of ports that each provides. While a typical repeater has just two ports, a hub generally has from four to twenty-four ports. Hubs are mostcommonly used in Ethernet 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T networks, although thereare other network architectures that use them as well.Using a hub changes the network topology from a linear bus, where each device plugs directly into the wire, to a star. With hubs, data arriving over the cables to ahub port is electrically repeated on all the other ports connected to the samenetwork segment, except for the port on which the data was sent.
 
3.SwitchA switch is sometimes described as a multiport bridge. While a typical bridgemay have just two ports linking two network segments, the switch can havemultiple ports depending on how many network segments are to be linked. Like bridges, switches learn certain information about the data packets that arereceived from various computers on the network. Switches use this information to build forwarding tables to determine the destination of data being sent by onecomputer to another computer on the network 
Software used in Networking Environment
1.O.S (Win NT)2.Router OS

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