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Automatic Voltage Regulator

Automatic Voltage Regulator

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Published by virendkumar
engineering
engineering

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Published by: virendkumar on Jan 19, 2010
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05/09/2013

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AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR 
Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) maintains the Generator terminal voltage at a givenvalve automatically by changing the excitation current to the Generator field.The AVR supplies the required D.C. to the Generator field depending on the load, power factor etc. to maintain a constant terminal voltage.The input to the AVR is a 3 phase A.C supplyThe A.V.R. consists of ai)Auto chennel andii)A Manual channelThe Auto channel regulates the Generator terminal voltage from 90% to 110% of therated voltage. This is a closed loop voltage regulation.The manual channel regulate the Generator terminal voltage from 0-100% of the ratedvoltage. This is called excitation current regulation.The Generator terminal voltage is fed to the AVR which compares it with a referencevalve and an error signal is generated.The function of AVR is as follows :1.The AVR compares the Generator terminal voltage with a preset referencevoltage.How this reference voltage is obtained.2.If the Generator terminal voltage is less than the reference voltage, the AVincreases D.C. voltage across the Generator field.If the Generator terminal voltage is more than the reference voltage, then the AVR reduces the D.C. voltage across the Generator field.Field forcing :Suppose the Generator is operating at rated load and rated power factor. Suddenly theload is thrown off then the voltage suddenly increased.Then AVR senses the increase in terminal voltage and increases the D.C. voltage acrossthe Generator field.This process takes some seconds if the AVR acts in a normal way. During this period theGenerator may be unstable and may pull out of step.
 
During such operating conditions, it is necessary to reduce the excitation voltage veryquickly.This can be achieved by applying a negative voltage to the already available D.C.voltage.In another case if the Generator is running on a light load and suddenly additional load isapplied, then the Generator terminal voltage suddenly falls down.In such cases, it is necessary to apply voltage in addition to the already existing fieldvoltage.This is called field forcing.Manual regulationThis is field current control.Automatic regulationGenerator is brought to rated speed and suppose the rated voltage is excitation is appliedand gradually increase is built up on No load (I
a
=0) by increasing the excitation to if thatthe Generator is gradually loaded to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of Armature current thenthe voltage drops as shown in the fig. 2.Fig. 2 is a graph drawn between terminal voltage V and load current (armature current) I
a
on x-axis. This graph is called LOAD CHARACTERISTIC OF Generator.But it is necessary to maintain terminal voltage constant always. To maintain the terminalconstant, we have to increase the excitation.
 
At 25% armature current, we have to increase the excitation marginally. At 50% armaturecurrent we have to increase the excitation further. Like that at 75% I
A
and at 100% I
A
wehave to increase the excitation. Suppose the machine is operating at 100% I
A
and ratedvoltage, if the armature current reduces to 50% then the terminal voltage increases beyond rated voltage (over voltage). So we have to reduce the excitation.That means for every change in load current, we have to change the excitation. It is verydifficult to change manually. Hence automatic voltage regulators are employed tomaintain terminal voltage constant always.The schematic diagram of AVR is shown in figure.The Generator terminal voltage is always compared with a reference voltage and thedifference between them (error signal) is used to increase/decrease the excitation. This isa closed loop voltage control.The AVR has some additional features other than automatic voltage control.They areChange over from manual to auto channelWe have seen here, that the T.G. set is started and excited in manual channel and theAVR will automatically take over when the Generator voltage exceeds 90% of ratedvoltage. When the terminal voltage is 100%, the machine is synchronized and loaded.The auto channel will maintain the voltage constant for different load conditions.1)If the Generator terminal voltage is less than 90% or more than 110%, the AVR changes from auto channel to manual channel.2)In case of P.T. fuse failure also, the AVR changes from auto channel to manualchannel.The main parts of auto channel are :i)Auto channel-Iii)Auto channel-IIiii)Manual channeliv)Follow up circuitv)Field forcingvi)Series compoundingvii)Field flashingviii)Field breakeix)Limiters

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