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Analyzing Water Distribution Systems for Swine Growing

Analyzing Water Distribution Systems for Swine Growing

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Computersand electronics
in agriculture
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 13 (1995) 75-86
Analyzing water distribution systems for swine growingand finishing units
Rabi H. Mohtar a,*, Larry J. Segerlind b, Howard L. Person b
a Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Pennsylvania State Universiry,University Park, PA 16802, USAb Department of Agricultural Engineeting, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Accepted 10 March 1995
An analysis
procedure for livestock water distribution systems with nipple waterers
is presented. The
procedure uses the finite element analysis techniques to calculate the
pressuredistribulion in a systemwith severalbranchesand nipple waterers.The procedure also optimize the system or flow uniformity and cost. The formulation allows the use ofthe drop inlet as a dischargepoint to reduce the size of the solution matrix. The dischargeparameterswere developedat this inlet usingwaterer flow characteristics.The flow rate at each nipple waterer can be then calculatedbasedon the drop inlet pressure.The solution for a typical network is presented.The method can be usedas he basis or the designand evaluation of water distribution systemsn swinegrowingand finishingunits. Keywords: Pipenetwork design and analysis;Water distribution systems;Nipple waterer;Livestock housingwater systems.1. Introduction
A water distribution system is an integral part of livestock housing. Deliveringadequate quantities of water is a fundamental requirement for providing optimalenvironmental conditions for animal housed in confinement facilities. Water stresscan include significant losses in the meat production as well as losing immunityagainst certain diseases. Celis (1988) found that the rate of gain, feed intake and
feed conversion of growing pigs were significantly decreased if water flow was below70 ml/min. Consequently, It is the responsibility of the designer to provide the
adequate water flow rate to all animals all the time at low cost. Significant savings
* Corresponding author. Fax: (814) 863-10310168-1699/95/$09.50 0 1995 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.SSDI 0168-1699(95)00016-X
76 R.H. Mohtar et al. I Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 13 (1995) 75-86
in initial system and operating cost are achieved by proper system design. Highflow uniformity increases the production by reducing the water stress. Uniformwater distribution becomes an important issue. In order to maintain the minimumadequate water supply in the entire livestock housing, some discharge outlets willhave higher than the minimum. In pipe network design, there is a trade-off betweenflow uniformity and system capacity. For a water supply of constant flow rateand pressure head, as the pipe sizes increase, the uniformity increases due to thereduced friction losses in the pipes. On the other hand, larger pipe sizes increase theinitial system cost and therefore reduce profitability. Proper designs for livestockwater distribution systems will reduce the sum of initial fixed and maintenance costof the water distribution and ensure high uniformity of flow. This creates a need fora procedure that allows engineers to adequately design livestock watering systems.Water distribution systems are presently analyzed and designed using the finiteelement method, Bralts and Segerlind (1985) Haghighi et al. (1989, 1992) andMohtar et al. (1991). These analysis and design procedures are applicable tofarmstead water systems but their application for this type of water systems has notyet been presented.The objective of the study is to develop an analysis procedure to assist indesigning water distribution systems that include nipple waterers commonly used inswine growing and finishing units. The procedure should allow the designer to checkflow uniformity upon changing any system parameter and also evaluate alreadyexisting system for their water flow uniformity and adequacy.Fig. 1 represents a typical layout of a livestock water distribution system. Itcomprises of a water source, main, submains, laterals, and drop inlets. A demandnode is defined as a node where water is being discharged. Each of these demandnodes represents a drop inlet. The pipe segment connecting two nodes is defined as
Fig. 1. Typical livestock water distribution layout.
R.H. Mohtar et al. /Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 13 (1995) 75-8677
Fig. 2. Typical drop unit. Bracketed numbers refer to element numbers while, non-bracketed numbersrefer to node numbers.
Water SourceDemand NodeJunction Node
Fig. 3. Example network layout. Bracketed numbers refer to element numbers while, non-bracketednumbers refer to node numbers.
an element. Fig. 2 represents a drop inlet feeding four nipple waterers. Fig. 3 is anexample of a livestock farm distribution network. Solid nodes represent drop inlet(demand nodes) and hollow nodes are junction nodes (non-demand nodes). Thesample network solutions will use the examples of Figs. 2 and 3 but the procedure isgeneral and can be implemented on any layout.2. Theoretical development
2.1. Finite element ormulation forpressure head distribution
The element matrices were derived from the basic pipe flow energy equations
a standard finite element form. Standard finite element procedure was thenemployed to solve for the pressure distribution in the network. This section presents

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