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Optimization of Water Distribution System

Optimization of Water Distribution System

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Environmental Software
8 ( 1993) 101 113 -i
Optimization of water distribution system
I.
Gupta, J. K. Bassin, A. Gupta & P. Khanna
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur 440 020, India
(Received 28 February 1992; final version received 10 August 1992; accepted 10 November 1992)ABSTRACTAn optimization algorithm with recourse to a nonlinear programming technique based onthe interior penalty function with Davidon-Fletcher-Powell method, incorporating the graphtheoretic approach for analysis of networks, has been developed for design of functionaland least-cost water distribution systems with multiple reservoirs. The model has the capabilityto design a new system as well as to reorganize an existing system. Reorganization ofa system becomes necessary due to increased water demand resulting from an increase inpopulation density and enhanced service levels or expansion to the new areas. Further, thehydraulic simulator based on graph theory enables design of all types of systems; viz. branched.looped or a combination thereof including nodes with specified fixed energy grades. Thesoftware package has been developed for use on an IBM-PC compatible micrrDcomputer. Timefficacy of the algorithm has been demonstrated through an example on design of a typicalwater distribution system.
KEY WORDS
Water Distribution, Optimization, Nonlinear Programming, Davidon-Fietcher-Powell Method,Interior Penalty Function Method, Network Analysis, Graph Theory, Computer softwareSOFTWARE AVAILABILITY
Name of Software : WATDIS
The software has been developed in FORTRAN language and is available for use on IBMPC-XT/AT compatible personal computers under MS-DOS as well as on HP-9050-AM computersystem under HP-UX operating system (Hewlett-Packard, USA).The software is available from the authors at the National Environmental EngineeringResearch Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur - 440 020, India.INTRODUCTIONConsequent upon the launching of the InternationalDrinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990), organized water supply was accorded highpriority in less developed countries. The review ofachievements against the goals set for the decadeindicate a considerable shortfall due to inadequatefinancial resources amongst other constraints. Waterdistribution is a cost intensive system and,accordingly, the situation could be resolved to a largeextent through the application of mathematicalprogramming techniques for cost minimization.Several researchers have developed algorithmsbased on heuristics, and linear and nonlinearprogramming techniques, to solve the problem ofcost minimization for water distribution system.Featherstone and El Jumaily [1] hypothesized thatan unique linear gradient exists for a balanced networkwhich results in the optimal solution. Walski et al.101
Environmental Software
0266-9838/93/$06.00 © 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd
 
102
L Gupta, J. K Bassin, A. Gupta, P. Khanna
[2] developed user friendly software based on the trialand error approach to identify the op6mal combinationof pipe sizes.Quindry et al. [3] developed
an
algorithm basedon the gradient search technique incorporating a linearprogramming approach. Swamee et al. [4] developedan algorithm to reorganize a distribution systemwhere the network is synthesized
via linear
programming to yield the new pipe diameters and theinput point pumping beads.Watanatada [5] used Davidon-Fletcber-Powellmethod to solve an unconstrained version of a 54node network and reported on the unsuitability of theapproach for large size networks. C, nedese et al. [6]formulated a multiobjective optimization problemconsidering construction cost (capital cost) andmanagement cost (operational cost) as the twoobjectives and obtained a Pareto optimal set (i.e. aseries of compromise solutions which take intoaccount the existing relation between different pointsof view) for a direct pumping water distributionsystem. Chiphinkar et al. [7] developed an algorithmusing interior penalty function with Davidon-Fletcber-Powell method and demonstrated the efficacy of theapproach through a case study for a large sire system.Lartsey and Mays 181 developed a methodologybased on reduced gradient method using an augmentedLagrangian approach to incorporate pressure headbounds in the objective function.This paper addresses itself to the developmentof software for optimal design of a new, or optimalaugmentation of an existing, combined pumping andgravity system with multiple reservoirs. For a newdesign problem, given a network configuration, theprogram computes the pipe diameters and reservoirheights which minimize the total cost of the systemwhile satisfying the quantity and head requirements.For reorganization, since the height of the existingreservoir and the existing pipeline must remain fixed,functional design is achieved through additionalpipes provided in parallel with existing oneswherever necessary and providing new reservoir(s) orenhancing the pumping capacity. The efficacy ofthe algorithm is demonstrated through an exampleconsidering reorganization of a typical waterdistribution system.estimation of frictional bead-loss in pipes. It has beenshown by Jain et at. [9] that the use of this formularesults in errors up to =1=.30% and :f.55% in the estimationof velocity and frictional bead-loss respectively forextreme conditions of velocities and pipe roughnessencountered in practice. The researchers also presentedthe Modified Hazen-Williams formula which obviatesthe inherent limitations of the Hazen-Williamsformula and has been employed in this research.Thus, frictional bead-loss in a pipe link
can be
estimated as,
L
qt.So99
f ~ ...........................
994.62 Ca I"~ D 4"~...(la)-- Z D --A'aog9 ...(lb)in which, f is frictional bead-loss in pipe in m; Lis length of pipe in m; q is flow in pipe inm3/s; C r is coefficient of roughness, D is internaldiameter of pipe in m; and Z is resistancecoefficient term for the pipe given by (Lq t'99) /(994.62 CRl"s°°9).
Cost Model
The total cost of a water distribution system is thesum of individual cost components in the system, i.e.pipe network, pumping systems, power, anddistribution reservoirs.Capital cost of pipe, including the cost of layingand jointing, can be expressed as,Cpip~ = K I L D" ...(2)in which, C. is the cost of pipe in Indian Rupees
p,pe
(1 US $ = 25.95 Indian Rupees); and K I and a amcoefficient and exponent of the regression equation andare functions of pipe material.Cast iron (CO, asbestos cement (AC) and galvanizediron (GI) pipes have been considered for regressionanalysis. Cost data have been taken from the Scheduleof rates (1990-91) provided by the Maharashtra WaterSupply and Sewerage Board, India. The values ofcoefficients for different pipe materials obtained byregression analysis (Eq.2) are presented in Table 1.FORMULATION OF PROBLEM
Hydraulic Model
Most researchers on opamization of water supplyhave employed the Hazen-Williams formula forThe capital cost of a pumping system can beexpressed as,
C
=
K'(HP) b ...(3)pump
in which, C is the total cost of pumping system
pump
 
Optimization of water distribution system
103
TABLE
I
REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS OFCOST EQUATION FOR DIFFERENTPIPE MATERIALS
PIPE
MATERIAL
Asbestos CementCast konGalvanized iron28124920240REGRESSIONCOEFFICIENTS
K 1 a
1.741.38
1.10in Indian Rupees; K' is coefficient of regression equation;HP is horse power of pump; and b is exponent dependenton type and HP range of pumps. Home power of
pump can be
expressed as,in which, C is total cost of reservoir in IndianRupees; K 4 and c are regression coefficients; and Vis capacity of reservoir in m 3. Regression
analysis
yields 8840 and 0.73 as the values of K 4 and crespectively. Reservoir capacity is fixed by balancing~qui~ments between the rates of pumping anddemand.Total armualized cost of the system forms thebasis for optimization. The annu~lizing factor (AF) isgiven by
I (I +
lY'- K s
AF ...................... + P(I
+
1)y
-
1
...(8)
in which, I is rate of interest; y is life of componentin years ; K is salvage factor, and P is maintenancefactor.HYDRAULIC SIMULATIONItgQHHP ............... AQH
746q
...(4)
in which, It is density of water in kg/m3; g is accelerationdue to gravity in m/s2; Q is total discharge in m3/s; H is pumping bead in m; q is combined efficiencyof pump and motor;, and A = Itg / (746~1). ThereforeEq. 3 could be rewritten as,Cpu,, p = K2(QH) b ...(5)in which, K 2 = K'(A) b. Regression analysis yields151320 and 0.84 as the values of I~ and b respectively.The annual cost of power can be expressed as,Cr,o, = K3QH ...(6)in which, C is annual cost of power in Indian
pow
rupees and K 3 is coefficient of regression equation.Regression analysis of Eq. 6 yields 22920 as the valueof K 3. Annual cost of power has been computed basedon unit cost of energy, hours of pumping, combinedefficiency of pump and motor, and yearly averageconsumption factor.Capital cost of elevated service reservoir can beexpressed as,C,:., = (0.02H + 0.76)K4(V)c
...(7)
In tbe analysis of looped water distribution systemthe necessary conditions are:I) The algebraic sum of head-loss in pipes arounda loop must be zero (energy equation) for all loops,i.e.
N k
Y" fki
= 0, for k th loopi=l
...(9)
in which, N k is the number of pipes in k th loop,fkl is the head-loss in i h pipe of the k h loop.2) The algebraic sum of in-flows and out-flowsat a node must be zero (continuity equation) for allnodes, i.e.
M k
Y" qkl + Uk = 0, for k th nodei=l...(10)in which, M k is the number of pipes connected tok th node; qki is the flow in i h pipe connected tok th node; and U k is demand at the k th node.
A water distribution network may be viewed asa directed linear graph which is composed of a collectionof finite number of edges (pipe sections each witha specified length, diameter and roughness coefficient).A spanning tree is a connected system of edges which

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