Optimization of water distribution system
REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS OFCOST EQUATION FOR DIFFERENTPIPE MATERIALS
Asbestos CementCast konGalvanized iron28124920240REGRESSIONCOEFFICIENTS
K 1 a
1.10in Indian Rupees; K' is coefficient of regression equation;HP is horse power of pump; and b is exponent dependenton type and HP range of pumps. Home power of
pump can be
expressed as,in which, C is total cost of reservoir in IndianRupees; K 4 and c are regression coefficients; and Vis capacity of reservoir in m 3. Regression
yields 8840 and 0.73 as the values of K 4 and crespectively. Reservoir capacity is fixed by balancing~qui~ments between the rates of pumping anddemand.Total armualized cost of the system forms thebasis for optimization. The annu~lizing factor (AF) isgiven by
I (I +
lY'- K s
AF ...................... + P(I
in which, I is rate of interest; y is life of componentin years ; K is salvage factor, and P is maintenancefactor.HYDRAULIC SIMULATIONItgQHHP ............... AQH
in which, It is density of water in kg/m3; g is accelerationdue to gravity in m/s2; Q is total discharge in m3/s; H is pumping bead in m; q is combined efficiencyof pump and motor;, and A = Itg / (746~1). ThereforeEq. 3 could be rewritten as,Cpu,, p = K2(QH) b ...(5)in which, K 2 = K'(A) b. Regression analysis yields151320 and 0.84 as the values of I~ and b respectively.The annual cost of power can be expressed as,Cr,o, = K3QH ...(6)in which, C is annual cost of power in Indian
rupees and K 3 is coefficient of regression equation.Regression analysis of Eq. 6 yields 22920 as the valueof K 3. Annual cost of power has been computed basedon unit cost of energy, hours of pumping, combinedefficiency of pump and motor, and yearly averageconsumption factor.Capital cost of elevated service reservoir can beexpressed as,C,:., = (0.02H + 0.76)K4(V)c
In tbe analysis of looped water distribution systemthe necessary conditions are:I) The algebraic sum of head-loss in pipes arounda loop must be zero (energy equation) for all loops,i.e.
= 0, for k th loopi=l
in which, N k is the number of pipes in k th loop,fkl is the head-loss in i h pipe of the k h loop.2) The algebraic sum of in-flows and out-flowsat a node must be zero (continuity equation) for allnodes, i.e.
Y" qkl + Uk = 0, for k th nodei=l...(10)in which, M k is the number of pipes connected tok th node; qki is the flow in i h pipe connected tok th node; and U k is demand at the k th node.
A water distribution network may be viewed asa directed linear graph which is composed of a collectionof finite number of edges (pipe sections each witha specified length, diameter and roughness coefficient).A spanning tree is a connected system of edges which