Thomas M. Walski
the link-node representation for a detailed pipenetwork model of a portion of the Austin, Texas,water distribution system (Sheet F-37). Of the 59 linksin that area, 34% had no valves, 42% had one valve,16% a valve at each end, 3% had two valves (but notat each end) and 3% had three valves. This section istypical of the author's experience with many otherwater systems. Therefore, assuming that it is possibleto isolate individual pipe links is incorrect.
Consider the intersection of pipes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in Fig.1. If one of the pipes connected at that intersectionshould fail and must be shut down, the link-noderepresentation would only be accurate in case A inwhich each link had an operable valve at each end. Asdemonstrated above, this is generally not the case.In practice, most design engineers would not placefour valves at a cross-type intersection as shown inFig. 1. Two or three valves at such an intersection areabout all that are usually included, as shown in case Bwhere a failure in pipe 1 will take portions of links 2, 3or 4 out of service. In case B, a failure in pipe 1 wouldalso take the intersection of the four pipes out ofservice.Another way of connecting pipes in an intersectionis case C in which the pipes are in separate planes andare connected by a short 'dogleg' connection with avalve. In this case a shutdown of pipe 1 wouldautomatically take out link 3, but would not take outlinks 2 and 4, and would leave links 2 and 4connected.
Now consider a more common situation of a griddedpipe network shown in Fig. 2(A). As shown in Fig.2(B), a pipe failure at point X would remove fourlinks and three nodes from the pipe network. Aneight-valve shutoff for a single pipe repair is not a
/\ B C
Fig. 1. Alternative vaiving at node.
I- I I
A I -~- I
II II I
I- I I IA B
I I I-~t
i iII I
---- LINE IN SERVICE..... LINE OUT OF SERVICEVALVE IN LINEBREAK LOCATION
2. Extent of outage due to piping break.desirable situation, but does occur regularly, espe-cially in systems without regular valve maintenance.Figure 2(C) shows that if valves are installed andoperable at points A and B, then the failure wouldonly take one link and no nodes out of service.
Transmission versus distribution
The representation of the distribution system in themodel is especially difficult in the case of a pipenetwork model that combines large transmissionmains with smaller distribution mains. Just asinterstate highways have no intersections or trafficlights, large transmission mains have few connectionswith the water distribution grid and few valves.Figure 3 shows such a case where a 36 in (900 mm)water transmission main shares the north-southright-of-way with an 8 in (200 mm) distribution main.In good design, the two sets of pipes are somewhatisolated so that a failure of the 36 in has little directeffect on the distribution grid while a failure in the