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arithmétique

# arithmétique

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12/14/2012

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http://arabmaths.site.voila.frMoustaouli Mohamed
تﺎﻴﺑﺎﺴﺤﻟا

ﺔﻴﺿﺎﻳر

مﻮﻠﻋ

ﺎﻳرﻮﻟﺎﻜﺑ

ﻚﻠﺳ

ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا
I-
ﻲﻓ

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﺔﻴﻠﺑﺎﻗ
1-
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
و

b
ﻦﻣ

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ

b
ﻢﺴﻘﻳ

a
ﺐﺘﻜﻧ

و

b a
ﺪﺟو

اذإ

ﻲﻓ

ﺚﻴﺣ

a kb
=

( )
2
;
a b b a k a kb
=
2-
تﺎﻈﺣﻼﻣ
*-
نﺎآ

اذإ

b
ﻢﺴﻘﻳ

a
نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ

ﺎﻨﻧإ

b
ـﻟ

ﻢﺳﺎﻗ

a
وأ

a
ـﻟ

ﻒﻋﺎﻀﻣ

b
*-
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

b
دﺪﻌﻟا

تﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻣ

ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ

b
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا

ﻲه

{ }
/
b k b
=
*-
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

*
b a
:
b a b a
3-
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺧ
"
b a
"*-
a a a
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
b a
"
ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻜﻌﻧا
*-
3
( ; ; )
b aa b c b ca c
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
b a
"
ﺔﻳﺪﻌﺘﻣ
*-
3
( ; ; )
b aa b c a ba b
=

ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ

3
( ; ; )
b aa b c a ba b
=
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
b a
"
ﻲﻓ

ﺔﻴﻔﻟﺎﺨﺗ

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
1-
نأ

ﻦﻴﺑ
( )
2
;
a b b a a b
2-
نأ

ﻦﻴﺑ

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
51 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
; ; ; ;
a x x y y a x y a x y a x x y y
II-
ﻲﻓ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

1-
ﻲﻓ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
و

b
ﻦﻣ

ﺚﻴﺣ

a b

ﺪﻴﺣو

جوز

ﺪﺟﻮﻳ

( )
;
q
ﻦﻣ

2
ﺚﻴﺣ

a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ

0
r b

تﺎﺣﻼﻄﺻا

ﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ

ﻦﻣ

ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﺗ

ﻲﺘﻟا

ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا

( )
;
q
ﺚﻴﺤﺑ

a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ

0
r b
ـﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﻰﻤﺴﺗ

a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
ﻲﻓ

دﺪﻌﻟا

a
دﺪﻌﻟا

و

مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا

ﻰﻤﺴﻳ

b
ﻠﻋ

مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا

ﻰﻤﺴﻳ

دﺪﻌﻟا

و

ﻪﻴ
q
و

جرﺎﺨﻟا

ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟا
. 2-
ﻲﻓ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
ﻦﻣ

و

b
ﻲﻓ

*
ﺚﻴﺣ
a b

ﺪﻴﺣو

جوز

ﺪﺟﻮﻳ

( )
;
q
ﻦﻣ

×
ﺚﻴﺣ

a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ

0
r b

تﺎﺣﻼﻄﺻا

ﺘﻟا

ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا

ﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ

ﻦﻣ

ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﺗ

ﻲ
( )
;
q
ﻦﻣ

×
ﺚﻴﺤﺑ

a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ

0
r b
ﻰﻤﺴﺗ

ـﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
ﻲﻓ

دﺪﻌﻟا

a
دﺪﻌﻟا

و

مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا

ﻰﻤﺴﻳ

b
دﺪﻌﻟا

و

ﻪﻴﻠﻋ

مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا

ﻰﻤﺴﻳ

q
و

جرﺎﺨﻟا

ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟا

http://arabmaths.site.voila.frMoustaouli Mohamed
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟا

ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻟا

داﺪﻋﻷا

دﺪﺣ

ـﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻠﻟ

نﻮﻜﻳ

ﺚﻴﺤﺑ

x
ﻰﻠﻋ
7
جرﺎﺧ

q
ﻲﻗﺎﺑ

و

2
q

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ـﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻠﻟ

نﺎآ

اذإ

ﻦﻴﺑ

a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
ـﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

و

'
a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
جرﺎﺨﻟا

ﺲﻔﻧ

q
نﺎآ

و

'
a x a
نﺎﻓ

q
ـﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

جرﺎﺧ

x
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
III-
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n 1-
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
و

b
ﻦﻣ

و

n
ﻦﻣ

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ

a
ﻖﻓاﻮﻳ

b
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

n
ﺐﺘﻜﻧ

و

[ ]
a b n
نﺎآ

اذإ
n
ﻢﺴﻘﻳ

a b

( )
[ ]
2
;
a b a b n n a b k a b kn
=
2-
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺧ
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
أ
-
[ ]
a a a n
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺔﻴﺴآﺎﻌﻧا

ب
-
( )
[ ] [ ]
;
a b a b n b a n
∀ ∈
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺔﻴﻠﺛﺎﻤﺗ

ج
-
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ]
; ( ) ( )
a b a b n et b c n a c n
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺔﻳﺪﻌﺘﻣ

و

ب

و

أ

تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺨﻟا

ﺺﺨﻠﻧ

ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

ﺎﻨﻟﻮﻘﺑ

ج
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺆﻓﺎﻜﺗ

ﺔﻗﻼﻋ

د
-
ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
و

b
ﻦﻣ

و

n
ﻦﻣ

[ ]
a b n

ﺊﻓﺎﻜﺗ

a
و

b
ﻰﻠﻋ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﻲﻗﺎﺑ

ﺲﻔﻧ

ﺎﻤﻬﻟ

n

نﺎهﺮﺒﻟا

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
و

b
ﻦﻣ

و

n
ﻦﻣ

ﺚﻴﺤﺑ

1 1
a nq
= +
و

2 2
b nq
= +
ﻊﻣ

1
0
r n
و

2
0
r n

نﺎآ

اذإ
a
و

b
ﻗﺎﺑ

ﺲﻔﻧ

ﺎﻤﻬﻟ

ﻰﻠﻋ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﻲ
n
يأ

1 2
r
=
نﺎﻓ

( )
1 2
a b n q q
=

نأ

يأ

[ ]
a b n

نﺎآ

اذإ

ﺎﻴﺴﻜﻋ
[ ]
a b n
ﺪﺟﻮﻳ

ﻪﻧﺎﻓ

ﻦﻣ

ﺚﻴﺣ

a b n
=

ﻪﻨﻣ

و
( )
1 2 1 2
r r k q q n
− = − −
يأ

n
ﻢﺴﻘﻳ

1 2
r

ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ

و
1
0
r n
و

2
0
r n
ﻪﻨﻣو

1 2
r r n

ﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑ

و
1 2
0
r
=
يأ

1 2
r
=
3-
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا

n
*-
( ) ( )
; ; 0
a n q r a nq r et r n
× × = +
-
( )
[ ]
{ }
; 0;1;.....; 1
a n r a r n et r n
×
-
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا

[ ]
{ }
/
x x r n
داﺪﻋﻷا

ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ

ﻲه

ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟا

ﺲﻔﻧ

ﺎﻬﻟ

ﻲﺘﻟا

ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟا

ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻟا

ﻰﻠﻋ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﻲﻓ

n
ـﺑ

ﺎﻬﻟ

ﺰﻣﺮﻧ

ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا

ﺆﻓﺎﻜﺗ

ﻒﻨﺻ

ﻰﻤﺴﺗ

ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻠﻟ

ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺑ
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﻲﻓ
-
[ ]
x r x r n
*-
{ }
[ ]
0;1;....; 1 /
a r n a r n
يأ

{ }
0;1;....; 1 /
a r n a
*-
نﺎآ

اذإ

'
r
=
و

0
r n
و

0 '
r n
نﺎﻓ

'
r
=
*-
( ) { }
; 0;1;..; 1 /
x n r n x
×
)
ﻰﻠﻋ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﻲﻗﺎﺑ

n
(
نذا

( )
0 1 2 .... 1
n
=

ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا

{ }
0;1;.....; 1
n
ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ

ﺎﻬﻟ

ﺰﻣﺮﺑ

n

ﺮﺻﺎﻨﻋ

n
ﻰﻨﺜﻣ

ﻰﻨﺜﻣ

ﺔﻠﺼﻔﻨﻣ

http://arabmaths.site.voila.frMoustaouli Mohamed
ﺔﻠﺜﻣأ
*
{ }
0;12
=

ﺚﻴﺣ

0 2
=
و

( )
{ }
1 / 2 1
x x k
= = +
*
{ }
0;1;2;3;4;5;67
=

ﺚﻴﺣ

0 7
=
و

( )
{ }
1 / 7 1
x x k
= = +

و

( )
{ }
2 / 7 2
x x k
= = +
و

( )
{ }
3 / 7 3
x x k
= = +

و
.................
و
( )
{ }
6 / 7 6
x x k
= = +

ﻲﻓ
7
ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ

532 4
=
نﻷ

[ ]
532 4 7

36 6
=
نﻷ

[ ]
36 6 7
4-
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

مﺎﺠﺴﻧا
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
بﺮﻀﻟاو

ﻊﻤﺠﻟا

ﻊﻣ

أ
-
ﻴﺻﺎﺧ

ﺔ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

x
و

y
و

z
و

ﻦﻣ

و

n
ﻦﻣ

نﺎآ

اذإ

[ ]
y n
و

[ ]
z t n
نﺎﻓ

[ ]
x z y t n
+ +

نﺎآ

اذإ

[ ]
y n
و

[ ]
z t n
نﺎﻓ

[ ]
x z y t n
× ×

ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا

نإ

لﻮﻘﻧ
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ

ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
بﺮﻀﻟاو

ﻊﻤﺠﻟا

ﻊﻣ

ﺔﻤﺠﺴﻨﻣ

ب
-
ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ

*-
اذإ

ﺖﻧﺎآ

x
و

' '
x
نﺎﻓ

' '
x x r r
+ +
و

' '
x x r r
× ×
ﺐﺘﻜﻧ

' '
r r r r
+ = +

و

' '
r r r
× = ×
*-
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
2 *
; ;
p p
a b p n a b n a b n
∈ ∀ ×

ﺔﻠﺜﻣأ
*
ﻲﻓ
5

3 4 7 2
+ = =
,
0 1 2 3 4 10 0
+ + + + = =
,
3 4 12 2
× = =

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟا

ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻟا

داﺪﻋﻷا

ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ

دﺪﺣ

x

ﻲﻓ

ﺚﻴﺣ

7

5 2
x
+ =

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
1-
ﻲﻓ

بﺮﻀﻟا

ﻢﺛ

ﻊﻤﺠﻟا

لوﺪﺟ

ﻂﻋأ
4
2-
دﺪﻌﻟا

نأ

ﻦﻴﺑ
70 70
2 3
+
ﻰﻠﻋ

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻠﻟ

ﺔﻠﺑﺎﻗ
13
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
1-
نأ

ﻦﻴﺑ
( )
[ ]
4
1 0
n n n n
2-
نأ

ﻦﻴﺑ
17
ﻢﺴﻘﻳ

2 1 3 2
3 5 2
n n
× +
ﻞﻜﻟ

n
ﻦﻣ

*
3-
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

n
ﻦﻣ

داﺪﻋﻸﻟ

ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا

ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا

ﻲﻗاﻮﺑ

دﺪﺣ

،

1 2 3 4
n n n n
+ + +
ﻰﻠﻋ
4 IV-
ﺮﺒآﻷا

كﺮﺘﺸﻤﻟا

ﻢﺳﺎﻘﻟا

ﺮﻧ

ﻲﺒﺴﻨﻟا

ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا

دﺪﻌﻟا

ﻢﺳاﻮﻗ

ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟ

ﺰﻣ
a
ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ

a
D
1-
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

a
و

b
ﻦﻣ

*

ﻦﻳدﺪﻌﻠﻟ

ﺮﺒآﻷا

كﺮﺘﺸﻤﻟا

ﻢﺳﺎﻘﻟا

a
و

b
ـﻟ

ﺎﻌﻄﻗ

ﺐﺟﻮﻣ

كﺮﺘﺸﻣ

ﻢﺳﺎﻗ

ﺮﺒآأ

ﻮه

a
و

b
ﻪﻟ

ﺰﻣﺮﻳ

ـﺑ

a b

a ba b
D Da b x D D x
δ δ δ
=