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arithmétique

arithmétique

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Published by Ihsan Mokhlisse

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Published by: Ihsan Mokhlisse on Apr 15, 2008
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12/14/2012

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http://arabmaths.site.voila.frMoustaouli Mohamed
تﺎﻴﺑﺎﺴﺤﻟا
 
ﺔﻴﺿﺎﻳر
 
 مﻮﻠﻋ
 
ﺎﻳرﻮﻟﺎﻜﺑ
 
ﻚﻠﺳ
 
ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا
 I-
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﺔﻴﻠﺑﺎﻗ
 1-
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ
 
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻦﻣ
 
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 
b
 ﻢﺴﻘﻳ
 
a
ﺐﺘﻜﻧ
 
 و
 
b a
ﺪﺟو
 
اذإ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
a kb
=
 
( )
2
;
a b b a k a kb
=
 2-
تﺎﻈﺣﻼﻣ
 *-
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 
b
 ﻢﺴﻘﻳ
 
a
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 
ﺎﻨﻧإ
 
b
 ـﻟ
 
 ﻢﺳﺎﻗ
 
a
 وأ
 
a
 ـﻟ
 
ﻒﻋﺎﻀﻣ
 
b
 *-
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
b
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
تﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻣ
 
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ
 
b
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا
 
ﻲه
 
{ }
/
b k b
=
 *-
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
*
b a
:
b a b a
 3-
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺧ
 "
b a
"*-
a a a
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
b a
"
ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻜﻌﻧا
 *-
3
( ; ; )
b aa b c b ca c
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
b a
"
ﺔﻳﺪﻌﺘﻣ
 *-
3
( ; ; )
b aa b c a ba b
=
 
ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ
 
3
( ; ; )
b aa b c a ba b
=
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
b a
"
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺔﻴﻔﻟﺎﺨﺗ
 
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
 1-
نأ
 
ﻦﻴﺑ
( )
2
;
a b b a a b
 2-
نأ
 
ﻦﻴﺑ
 
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
51 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
; ; ; ;
a x x y y a x y a x y a x x y y
II-
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
 1-
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
 
ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ
 
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
a b
 
ﺪﻴﺣو
 
جوز
 
ﺪﺟﻮﻳ
 
( )
;
q
ﻦﻣ
 
2
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
0
r b
 
تﺎﺣﻼﻄﺻا
 
ﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﺗ
 
ﻲﺘﻟا
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا
 
( )
;
q
ﺚﻴﺤﺑ
 
a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
0
r b
 ـﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﻰﻤﺴﺗ
 
a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
ﻲﻓ
 
 
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
a
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
 و
 
 مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا
 
ﻰﻤﺴﻳ
 
b
 ﻠﻋ
 
 مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا
 
ﻰﻤﺴﻳ
 
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
 و
 
ﻪﻴ
q
 و
 
جرﺎﺨﻟا
 
ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟا
 . 2-
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
 
ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
ﻦﻣ
 
 و
 
b
ﻲﻓ
 
*
ﺚﻴﺣ
a b
 
ﺪﻴﺣو
 
جوز
 
ﺪﺟﻮﻳ
 
( )
;
q
ﻦﻣ
 
×
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
0
r b
 
تﺎﺣﻼﻄﺻا
 
 ﺘﻟا
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا
 
ﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﺗ
 
ﻲ
( )
;
q
ﻦﻣ
 
×
ﺚﻴﺤﺑ
 
a bq
= +
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
0
r b
ﻰﻤﺴﺗ
 
 ـﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
ﻲﻓ
 
 
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
a
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
 و
 
 مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا
 
ﻰﻤﺴﻳ
 
b
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
 و
 
ﻪﻴﻠﻋ
 
 مﻮﺴﻘﻤﻟا
 
ﻰﻤﺴﻳ
 
q
 و
 
جرﺎﺨﻟا
 
ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟا
 
 
http://arabmaths.site.voila.frMoustaouli Mohamed
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
 
ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟا
 
ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻟا
 
داﺪﻋﻷا
 
دﺪﺣ
 
 ـﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻠﻟ
 
نﻮﻜﻳ
 
ﺚﻴﺤﺑ
 
 x
ﻰﻠﻋ
 7
جرﺎﺧ
 
q
ﻲﻗﺎﺑ
 
 و
 
2
q
 
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
 
 ـﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻠﻟ
 
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 
ﻦﻴﺑ
 
a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
 ـﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
 و
 
'
a
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
جرﺎﺨﻟا
 
ﺲﻔﻧ
 
q
نﺎآ
 
 و
 
'
a x a
نﺎﻓ
 
q
 ـﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
جرﺎﺧ
 
 x
ﻰﻠﻋ
b
 III-
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
 n 1-
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ
 
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻦﻣ
 
 و
 
n
ﻦﻣ
 
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 
a
ﻖﻓاﻮﻳ
 
b
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
n
ﺐﺘﻜﻧ
 
 و
 
[ ]
a b n
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 n
 ﻢﺴﻘﻳ
 
a b
 
( )
[ ]
2
;
a b a b n n a b k a b kn
=
 2-
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺧ
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n" 
أ
-
[ ]
a a a n
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺔﻴﺴآﺎﻌﻧا
 
ب
-
( )
[ ] [ ]
;
a b a b n b a n
∀ ∈
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺔﻴﻠﺛﺎﻤﺗ
 
ج
-
( )
[ ] [ ] [ ]
; ( ) ( )
a b a b n et b c n a c n
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﺔﻳﺪﻌﺘﻣ
 
 و
 
ب
 
 و
 
أ
 
تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺨﻟا
 
ﺺﺨﻠﻧ
 
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
ﺎﻨﻟﻮﻘﺑ
 
ج
"
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
 ﺆﻓﺎﻜﺗ
 
ﺔﻗﻼﻋ
 
د
-
ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ
 
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻦﻣ
 
 و
 
n
ﻦﻣ
 
 
[ ]
a b n
 
ﺊﻓﺎﻜﺗ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﻲﻗﺎﺑ
 
ﺲﻔﻧ
 
ﺎﻤﻬﻟ
 
n
 
نﺎهﺮﺒﻟا
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻦﻣ
 
 و
 
n
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺚﻴﺤﺑ
 
1 1
a nq
= +
 و
 
2 2
b nq
= +
ﻊﻣ
 
1
0
r n
 و
 
2
0
r n
 
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
a
 و
 
b
 ﻗﺎﺑ
 
ﺲﻔﻧ
 
ﺎﻤﻬﻟ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﻲ
n
يأ
 
1 2
r
=
نﺎﻓ
 
( )
1 2
a b n q q
=
 
نأ
 
يأ
 
[ ]
a b n
 
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 
ﺎﻴﺴﻜﻋ
[ ]
a b n
ﺪﺟﻮﻳ
 
ﻪﻧﺎﻓ
 
ﻦﻣ
 
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
a b n
=
 
ﻪﻨﻣ
 
 و
( )
1 2 1 2
r r k q q n
− = − −
يأ
 
n
 ﻢﺴﻘﻳ
 
1 2
r
 
ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ
 
 و
1
0
r n
 و
 
2
0
r n
ﻪﻨﻣو
 
1 2
r r n
 
ﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟﺎﺑ
 
 و
1 2
0
r
=
يأ
 
1 2
r
=
 3-
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا
 
n
 *- 
( ) ( )
; ; 0
a n q r a nq r et r n
× × = +
 -
( )
[ ]
{ }
; 0;1;.....; 1
a n r a r n et r n
×
 -
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا
 
[ ]
{ }
/
 x x r n
داﺪﻋﻷا
 
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ
 
ﻲه
 
ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟا
 
ﺲﻔﻧ
 
ﺎﻬﻟ
 
ﻲﺘﻟا
 
ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟا
 
ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻟا
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﻲﻓ
 
n
 ـﺑ
 
ﺎﻬﻟ
 
 ﺰﻣﺮﻧ
 
 
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا
 
 ﺆﻓﺎﻜﺗ
 
ﻒﻨﺻ
 
ﻰﻤﺴﺗ
 
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻠﻟ
 
ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺑ
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
ﻲﻓ
 - 
[ ]
 x r x r n
 *-
{ }
[ ]
0;1;....; 1 /
a r n a r n
يأ
 
{ }
0;1;....; 1 /
a r n a
 *-
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 
'
r
=
 و
 
0
r n
 و
 
0 '
r n
نﺎﻓ
 
'
r
=
 *- 
( ) { }
; 0;1;..; 1 /
 x n r n x
×
)
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﻲﻗﺎﺑ
 
n
( 
نذا
 
( )
0 1 2 .... 1
n
=
 
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟا
 
{ }
0;1;.....; 1
n
 ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ
 
ﺎﻬﻟ
 
 ﺰﻣﺮﺑ
 
n
 
 ﺮﺻﺎﻨﻋ
 
n
ﻰﻨﺜﻣ
 
ﻰﻨﺜﻣ
 
ﺔﻠﺼﻔﻨﻣ
 
 
http://arabmaths.site.voila.frMoustaouli Mohamed
ﺔﻠﺜﻣأ
 *
{ }
0;12
=
 
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
0 2
=
 و
 
( )
{ }
1 / 2 1
 x x k
= = +
 *
{ }
0;1;2;3;4;5;67
=
 
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
0 7
=
 و
 
( )
{ }
1 / 7 1
 x x k
= = +
 
 و
 
( )
{ }
2 / 7 2
 x x k
= = +
 و
 
( )
{ }
3 / 7 3
 x x k
= = +
 
 و
 .................
 و
( )
{ }
6 / 7 6
 x x k
= = +
 
ﻲﻓ
7
ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ
 
532 4
=
نﻷ
 
[ ]
532 4 7
 
36 6
=
نﻷ
 
[ ]
36 6 7
 4-
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
 مﺎﺠﺴﻧا
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
بﺮﻀﻟاو
 
ﻊﻤﺠﻟا
 
ﻊﻣ
 
أ
 -
 ﻴﺻﺎﺧ
 
ﺔ
 
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
 x
 و
 
 y
 و
 
 z 
 و
 
ﻦﻣ
 
 و
 
n
ﻦﻣ
 
 
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 
[ ]
 y n
 و
 
[ ]
 z t n
نﺎﻓ
 
[ ]
 x z y t n
+ +
 
نﺎآ
 
اذإ
 
[ ]
 y n
 و
 
[ ]
 z t n
نﺎﻓ
 
[ ]
 x z y t n
× ×
 
ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟا
 
نإ
 
لﻮﻘﻧ
 "
ﺪﻳدﺮﺘﺑ
 
ﺔﻘﻓاﻮﻤﻟا
n"
بﺮﻀﻟاو
 
ﻊﻤﺠﻟا
 
ﻊﻣ
 
ﺔﻤﺠﺴﻨﻣ
 
ب
 -
ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ
 
 
*-
اذإ
 
ﺖﻧﺎآ
 
 x
 و
 
' '
 x
نﺎﻓ
 
' '
 x x r r 
+ +
 و
 
' '
 x x r r 
× ×
ﺐﺘﻜﻧ
 
' '
r r r r 
+ = +
 
 و
 
' '
r r r
× = ×
 *-
( ) ( )
[ ] [ ]
2 *
; ;
p p
a b p n a b n a b n
∈ ∀ ×
 
ﺔﻠﺜﻣأ
 *
ﻲﻓ
5
 
3 4 7 2
+ = =
,
0 1 2 3 4 10 0
+ + + + = =
,
3 4 12 2
× = =
 
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
 
ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨﻟا
 
ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻟا
 
داﺪﻋﻷا
 
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ
 
دﺪﺣ
 
 x
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺚﻴﺣ
 
7
 
5 2
 x
+ =
 
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
 1-
ﻲﻓ
 
بﺮﻀﻟا
 
 ﻢﺛ
 
ﻊﻤﺠﻟا
 
لوﺪﺟ
 
 ﻂﻋأ
4
 2-
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
نأ
 
ﻦﻴﺑ
70 70
2 3
+
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻠﻟ
 
ﺔﻠﺑﺎﻗ
 13 
ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
 1-
نأ
 
ﻦﻴﺑ
( )
[ ]
4
1 0
n n n n
 2-
نأ
 
ﻦﻴﺑ
17
 ﻢﺴﻘﻳ
 
2 1 3 2
3 5 2
n n
× +
ﻞﻜﻟ
 
n
ﻦﻣ
 
*
 3-
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
n
ﻦﻣ
 
داﺪﻋﻸﻟ
 
ﺔﻳﺪﻴﻠﻗﻻا
 
ﺔﻤﺴﻘﻟا
 
ﻲﻗاﻮﺑ
 
دﺪﺣ
 
،
 
1 2 3 4
n n n n
+ + +
ﻰﻠﻋ
 4 IV-
 ﺮﺒآﻷا
 
كﺮﺘﺸﻤﻟا
 
 ﻢﺳﺎﻘﻟا
 
 ﺮﻧ
 
ﻲﺒﺴﻨﻟا
 
ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا
 
دﺪﻌﻟا
 
 ﻢﺳاﻮﻗ
 
ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟ
 
 ﺰﻣ
a
 ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ
 
a
 D
 1-
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ
 
 
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻦﻣ
 
*
 
ﻦﻳدﺪﻌﻠﻟ
 
 ﺮﺒآﻷا
 
كﺮﺘﺸﻤﻟا
 
 ﻢﺳﺎﻘﻟا
 
a
 و
 
b
 ـﻟ
 
ﺎﻌﻄﻗ
 
ﺐﺟﻮﻣ
 
كﺮﺘﺸﻣ
 
 ﻢﺳﺎﻗ
 
 ﺮﺒآأ
 
 ﻮه
 
a
 و
 
b
ﻪﻟ
 
 ﺰﻣﺮﻳ
 
 ـﺑ
 
a b
 
a ba b
 D Da b x D D x
δ δ δ 
=
 

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