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Algoritmica Grafurilor

Algoritmica Grafurilor

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Published by: rosper2 on Jan 19, 2010
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08/19/2013

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ALGORITMICAGRAFURILOR
C. Croitoru
2009-2010
 
0.
Probleme,Algoritmi,Complexitate
Vom considera o
problem˘a
(computat¸ional˘a)ca fiind o aplicat¸ie
:
O
,
(
mult¸imeaintr˘arilorproblemei, mult¸imeainstant¸elor problemei;
O
mult¸imeaie¸sirilor, aspunsurilor, solut¸iilor)
care pentru fiecare intrare
i
ofer˘a o isire
(
i
)
O
.Dac˘a
O
=
{
da,nu
}
atunci
se va numiprob-lea de decizie,
(
i
)
{
da,nu
}
va aspunsul(laˆıntrebarea pua de
), iar forma uzual˘a deprezentare a problemei va fi:
Intrare:
i
.
Intrebare:
descriere ... ?Exemplu:
CompusIntrare:
n
N
n
2.
Intrebare:
Exist˘a
p,q
N
p,q
2 ¸si
n
=
pq
?
1
 
Un alt tip de probleme care apar frecvent suntcele dec˘autare:mult¸imea
O
cont¸ine pentru fiecare
i
m˘acaro solut¸ie acceptabil˘a ˆın raport cu un anumitcriteriu precizat, iar problema cere asirea uneiastfel de solut¸ii.O clas˘a special˘a de astfel de probleme estecea a problemelor deoptimizare, care sunt demaximizaresauminimizare.Exemple:
DrumIntrare:
G
un graf,
a,b
doa vˆarfuri ale lui
G
.
Isire:
un drumˆın
G
de la
a
la
b
(dac˘a
).
DrMinIntrare:
G
graf,
a,b
vˆarfuriˆın
G
,o funct¸ie de lungime a muchiilor lui
G
.
Isire:
un drumˆın
G
de la
a
la
b
cu sumalungimilor muchiilorminim˘a, printretoate drumurile de la
a
la
b
ˆın
G
.
MaxCutIntrare:
G
graf,o funct¸ie de lungime a muchiilor lui
G
.
Isire:
O bipartit¸ie (
S,
) a mult¸imii arfurilorgrafului
G
cu suma lungimilor muchiilordintre cele dou˘a clasemaxim˘a.
2

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