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barouque art

barouque art

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barouque art
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Published by: naquashv on Apr 16, 2008
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Mannerism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective.
Mannerism
is a period of European painting, sculpture, architecture and decorative arts lasting from the later years of the ItalianHigh Renaissance around 1520until the arrival of theBaroque around1600.Stylistically, it identifies a variety of individual approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated withLeonardo da Vinci,Raphael,and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.The term is also applied to someLate Gothicpainters working in northern Europe fromabout1500to1530, especially theAntwerp Manneristsand some currents of  seventeenth-century literature, especially poetry.
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[edit] Nomenclature
The word derives from the Italian
maniera,
or "style," which corresponds to an artist'scharacteristic "touch" or recognizable "manner". Artificiality, as opposed toRenaissanceand Baroquenaturalism, provides one of the common features of mannerist art. Thelasting influence of the Italian Renaissance, as transformed by succeeding generations of artists, is another.As a stylistic label, "Mannerism" is not easily pigeonholed. It was first popularized byGermanart historiansin the early twentieth-century to categorize the seeminglyuncategorizable art of the Italian sixteenth century—art that was no longer perceived toexhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance.The term is applied differently to a variety of different artists and styles.
[edit] Anti-Classical
The early Mannerists—especiallyJacopo da PontormoandRosso Fiorentinoin Florence, Raphael's student in RomeGiulio Romanoand Parmigianinoin Parma—are notable for  elongated forms, exaggerated, out-of-balance poses, manipulated irrational space, andunnatural lighting. These artists matured under the influence of the High Renaissance,and their style has been characterized as a reaction or exaggerated extension of it.Therefore, this style is often identified as "anti-classical" mannerism.
 
Late Mannerism: fountain byGiambologna's successor,Pietro Tacca,1629 (Piazza Santissima Annunziata, Florence)
[edit] Maniera
Subsequent mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic ability, features that ledearly critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" (
maniera
).These artists held their elder contemporary Michelangelo as their prime example.GiorgioVasari, as artist and architect, exemplifies this strain of Mannerism lasting from about1530 to 1580. Based largely at courts and in intellectual circles around Europe, it is oftencalled the "stylish" style or the
Maniera
.
[edit] Mannerisms
After 1580 in Italy, a new generation of artists, including the Carracci,Caravaggioand Cigoli, reemphasized naturalism. Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti- mannerism", just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction to the HighRenaissance.
Outside of Italy, however, mannerism continued into the seventeenthcentury. Important centers include the court of Rudolf IIinPrague,as well asHaarlem and Antwerp. Mannerism as a stylistic category is less frequently applied to English visual anddecorative arts, where local categories such as "Elizabethan" and "Jacobean" are more common. Eighteenth-centuryArtisan Mannerismis one exception.

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