(1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective.
is a periodof European painting, sculpture, architecture and decorative artslasting from the later years of the ItalianHigh Renaissancearound1520until the arrivalof theBaroquearound1600.Stylistically, it identifies a variety of individual approachesinfluenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated withLeonardo da Vinci,Raphael,and earlyMichelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual as well as itsartificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.The term is also applied to someLate Gothicpainters working in northern Europe fromabout1500to1530, especially theAntwerp Manneristsand some currents of seventeenth-century literature, especially poetry.
or "style," which corresponds to an artist'scharacteristic "touch" or recognizable "manner". Artificiality, as opposed toRenaissanceand Baroquenaturalism, provides one of the common features of mannerist art. Thelasting influence of the Italian Renaissance, as transformed by succeeding generations of artists, is another.As a stylistic label, "Mannerism" is not easily pigeonholed. It was first popularized byGermanart historiansin the early twentieth-century to categorize the seeminglyuncategorizable art of the Italian sixteenth century—art that was no longer perceived toexhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance.The term is applied differently to a variety of different artists and styles.
The early Mannerists—especiallyJacopo da PontormoandRosso Fiorentinoin Florence,Raphael's student in RomeGiulio RomanoandParmigianinoin Parma—are notable for elongated forms, exaggerated, out-of-balance poses, manipulated irrational space, andunnatural lighting. These artists matured under the influence of the High Renaissance,and their style has been characterized as a reaction or exaggerated extension of it.Therefore, this style is often identified as "anti-classical" mannerism.
Subsequent mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic ability, features that ledearly critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" (
).These artists held their elder contemporary Michelangelo as their prime example.GiorgioVasari, as artist and architect, exemplifies this strain of Mannerism lasting from about1530 to 1580. Based largely at courts and in intellectual circles around Europe, it is oftencalled the "stylish" style or the
After 1580 in Italy, a new generation of artists, including theCarracci,CaravaggioandCigoli, reemphasized naturalism.Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti-mannerism", just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction to the HighRenaissance.
Outside of Italy, however, mannerism continued into the seventeenthcentury. Important centers include the court of Rudolf IIinPrague,as well asHaarlemandAntwerp.Mannerism as a stylistic category is less frequently applied to English visual anddecorative arts, where local categories such as "Elizabethan" and "Jacobean" are morecommon. Eighteenth-centuryArtisan Mannerismis one exception.