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The electrical force has a convenient range and strength. This convenient range and strength has made the electromagnetic force easy to exploit. The strong nuclear force has a range measured in Fermis. The strong nuclear force has not been harnessed with classical technology, as its range is too short. The gravitational force is very weak. This weakness has made it impossible to control the gravitational force. A dielectric medium affects the range and the strength of the electrical force. It is commonly believed that no (di-force-field) medium exists for the other forces. It is assumed that the range and strength of the nuclear and gravitational forces will converge at high energies. These energies are beyond the reach of any conceivable technology. A low energy condition may exist in which the range and the strength, of all the natural forces, are affected. This condition is that of the quantum transition. This paper presents arguments that may have exposed the path of the quantum transition. This exposure may lead to the development of technologies that convert matter into energy and technologies that provide propellant-less propulsion.

The electrical force has a convenient range and strength. This convenient range and strength has made the electromagnetic force easy to exploit. The strong nuclear force has a range measured in Fermis. The strong nuclear force has not been harnessed with classical technology, as its range is too short. The gravitational force is very weak. This weakness has made it impossible to control the gravitational force. A dielectric medium affects the range and the strength of the electrical force. It is commonly believed that no (di-force-field) medium exists for the other forces. It is assumed that the range and strength of the nuclear and gravitational forces will converge at high energies. These energies are beyond the reach of any conceivable technology. A low energy condition may exist in which the range and the strength, of all the natural forces, are affected. This condition is that of the quantum transition. This paper presents arguments that may have exposed the path of the quantum transition. This exposure may lead to the development of technologies that convert matter into energy and technologies that provide propellant-less propulsion.

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The Control of the Natural Forces

Frank Znidarsic

Registered Professional Electrical Engineer fznidarsic at aol.com

Abstract.

The electrical force has a convenient range and strength. This convenient range and strength hasmade the electromagnetic force easy to exploit. The strong nuclear force has a range measured in Fermis.The strong nuclear force has not been harnessed with classical technology. Its range is too short. The rangeof the weak nuclear force has also placed it beyond the reach of classical technology. The gravitational forceis very weak. This weakness has made it impossible to control the gravitational force. A dielectric mediumaffects the range and the strength of the electrical force. It is commonly believed that no dielectric (di-force-field ) exists for the other forces. It is assumed that the range and strength of the nuclear and gravitationalforces will converge at high energies. These energies are beyond the reach of any conceivable technology. Alow energy dielectric condition may exist in which the range and the strength, of all the natural forces, areaffected. This condition is that of the quantum transition. This paper presents arguments that may haveexposed the path of the quantum transition. This exposure may lead to the development of technology thatconverts matter directly into energy.

INTRODUCTION

Planck’s constant qualifies the angular momentum of the stationary quantum state.

9

The path of thetransitional quantum state has been unknown. Einstein described the energy of a photon with Planck’sconstant.

3

Bohr extended these ideas to the atomic structure. Bohr’s quantum condition states that theangular momentum carried by a stationary atomic orbit is a multiple of Planck’s constant.

2

Thequantization of angular momentum is a postulate, underivable from any deeper law, and its validitydepended on the agreement with experimental spectra. These constructs form the foundation of modernphysics. The structure built upon this foundation considers the classical regime to be a subset of thequantum realm.Znidarsic’s constant V

t

qualifies the velocity of the transitional quantum state. The structure of thehydrogen atom and the intensity of spectral emission were described, in the body of this paper, in terms of V

t.

An extension of this work would universally swap Planck’s constant and V

t

. There would have to be acompelling reason to do this as this change would confound the scientific community. There are two goodreasons for doing so. Velocity is a classical parameter. The structure built upon this foundation considersthe quantum regime to be a subset of the classical realm. The constant also describes the progression of an energy flow. An understanding of this progression may lead to the development of new sources of energy.

THE OBSERVABLES

Thermal energy, nuclear transmutations, and a few high energy particles have reportedly been producedduring cold fusion experiments.

7,14

The transmutation of heavy elements has also been reported.

6

Thename Low Level Nuclear Reactions is now used to describe the process. The process was renamed toinclude the reported transmutation of heavy elements. According to contemporary theory heavy elementtransmutations can only progress at energies in the millions of electron volts. The available energy atroom temperature is only a fraction of an electron volt. These experimental results do not fit within theconfine of the contemporary theoretical constructs. They have been widely criticized on this basis. Theseexperiments have produced very little, if no, radiation. The lack of high energy radiation is also a sourceof contention. Nuclear reactions can proceed without producing radiation under a condition where therange of the nuclear force exceeds that of the coulombic force. The process of cold fusion may require aradical restructuring of the range of the natural forces. The geometry of the emitting structures provides aclue. Low Level Nuclear reactions proceed in a domain of 50 nanometers.

1,12,13

They have a positivethermal coefficient. The product of the thermal frequency and the domain size is one megahertz-meter.These observable parameters may have disclosed the path of the of the quantum transition.The gravitational experiments of Eugene Podkletnov involved the 3 megahertz stimulation of a 1/3 of ameter superconducting disk. These experiments reportedly produced a strong gravitationalanomaly.

4,10,11,15

The results also do not appear to fit within the contemporary scientific construct. Theyhave been widely criticized. It is assumed that the generation of a strong local gravitational field violatesthe principle of the conservation of energy. The strength of the electrical field can be modified with theuse of a dielectric. The existence of a gravitational di-force-field no more violates the principle of theconservation of energy than does the existence of an electrical dielectric. The geometry of thesuperconducting structure provides collaborating information.

8

The product of the disk size and radiofrequency stimulation was, as in the case with cold fusion, one megahertz-meter.Electromagnetic energy flows strongly from the parent to the daughter states during transition. This flowof energy is mediated by a strong electromagnetic interaction. It is reasonable to assume that the othernatural forces also interact strongly during transition. The flux of the force fields flows strongly, and atrange, from the parent to the daughter state. The daughter is not just a displaced parent. Therearrangement of the force fields gives birth to an entirely new state. This process is associated with theemission of a photon. A convergence in the motion constants uncouples the frequency of the emittedphoton from the frequency of the emitting electron. V

t

has been refined to a value of 1.094 megahertz-meters. This authors theorem, “The Constants of the Motion tend toward those of the electromagnetic ina Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimensional frequency of 1.094 megahertz-meters”, qualifies thestrong transitional interaction. All energy flows progress by the way of a quantum transition. Thistheorem describes the progression of an energy flow.

The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom

Planck’s constant describes the energy of an emitted photon. V

t

describes the velocity of the emittingstructure. Two additional classical parameters are required in order to describe quantum phenomena interms of the emitting structure. They will be briefly presented. The radius r

p

is that of the maximumextent of the proton. The strength of the electrical force equals the strength of the strong nuclear force atthis radius. The classical radius of the electron exists at 2r

p

. The coulombic force produced between twoelectrical charges compressed to within 2r

p

equals 29.05 Newtons. The force produced by an amount of energy equal to the rest mass of the electron confined to within 2r

p

is also 29.05 Newtons. Thisconfinement force F

max

was qualified in equation (1).

(1)

pe

r c M F

2

2max

−

=

Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity states that a force can induce a gravitational field. Thegravitational field of the electron may be coupled to the outward force of its confined energy. Newton’sformula of gravity was set equal to Einstein’s formula of gravitational induction in Equation (2). Thedependent variable in this relationship was the mass of the electron.(2)

max22

2)2(

F cr Gr GM

p pe

=

−

The strength of the natural forces converges at radius r

p

. This convergence allows energy to flow betweenthe natural force fields. The radius r

p

is the classical radius of energetic accessibility.The electrical field is usually described in terms of force and charge. The paper describes the electricalfield in terms of an elastic constant. The elastic constant method exposes geometric conditions that areexperienced by the natural forces. The elastic constant of the electron K

-e

was derived from the classicalradius of energetic accessibility. The force at this radius is F

max

. It was assumed that that elastic constantof the electron varies inversely with displacements that exist beyond r

p

.(3)

xe

r F K

max

=

−

The elastic energy of the electron is given in Equation (4).(4)

2

)2(21

pe

r K E

−

=

The elastic constant was tested at two radii. Radius r

x

was set equal to the classical radius of the electron2r

p,

The elastic energy contained by a an elastic discontinuity of displacement of 2r

p

equals to the restenergy of the electron. Radius r

x

was then set equal to the radius of the hydrogen atom. The elasticenergy contained by an elastic discontinuity of displacement of 2r

p

equals the zero point kinetic energy of the ground state electron. This author has suggested that the natural forces are pinned into the structureof matter at these discontinuities.

16

This brief introduction describes the classical parameters associatedwith the emitting structures.Maxwell’s theory predicts that accelerating electrons will continuously emit electromagnetic radiation.

5

Bound electrons experience a constant centripetal acceleration; however, they do not continuously emitenergy. An atom’s electrons emit energy at discrete quantum intervals. The quantum nature of theseemissions cannot be accounted for by any existing classical theory. Quantum theory assumes that thegravitational force is always weak and ignores it. This is a fundamental mistake. During transition,electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic flux quickly flows from the parent to the daughter state. This rapidflow progresses by the way of a strong electromagnetic and a strong gravitomagnetic interaction. Theenergy levels of the atom are established through the action of this strong interaction. The velocity of thecentric transitional electronic state "t" was expressed as the product of its frequency F

t

and wavelength.(5)

t t

V F

=

πλ

2

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