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CalcII Complete

CalcII Complete

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06/21/2010

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© 2004 Paul Dawkins
1This document was written and copyrighted by Paul Dawkins. You may use thisdocument or any portion of it provided proper credit is given to Paul Dawkins.You many link to this document and/or the online version if you would like to.The online version of this document is available athttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. Youcan also find the complete set of notes at this site as well as download pdf versions of specific sections from this whole document.
Preface
Here are my online notes for my Calculus II course that I teach here at Lamar University.Despite the fact that these are my “class notes” they should be accessible to anyonewanting to learn Calculus II or needing a refresher in some of the topics from the class.These notes do assume that the reader has a good working knowledge of Calculus I topicsincluding limits, derivatives and integration by substitution.So, with all that out of the way let me also get a couple of warnings out of the way to mystudents how may be here to get a copy of what happened on a day that you missed.1.
 
Because I wanted to make this a fairly complete set of notes for anyone wantingto learn calculus I have included some material that I do not usually have time tocover in class and because this changes from semester to semester it is not notedhere. You will need to find one of your fellow class mates to see if there issomething in these notes that wasn’t covered in class.2.
 
In general I try to work problems in class that are different from my notes.However, with Calculus II many of the problems are difficult to make up on thespur of the moment and so in this class my class work will follow these notesfairly close as far as worked problems go. With that being said I often don’t havetime in class to work all of these problems and so you will find that some sectionscontain problems that weren’t worked in class due to time restrictions.3.
 
Sometimes questions in class will lead down paths that are not covered here. I tryto anticipate as many of the questions as possible in writing these up, but thereality is that I can’t anticipate all the questions. Sometimes a very good questiongets asked in class that leads to insights that I’ve not included here. You shouldalways talk to someone who was in class on the day you missed and comparethese notes to their notes and see what the differences are.4.
 
This is somewhat related to the previous three items, but is important enough tomerit its own item. THESE NOTES ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR ATTENDING CLASS!! Using these notes as a substitute for class is liable to getyou in trouble. As already noted not everything in these notes is covered in classand often material or insights not in these notes is covered in class.
 
© 2004 Paul Dawkins
2
Integration Techniques
Introduction
In this chapter we are going to be looking at integration techniques. There are a fainumber of them, some easier than others. The point of the chapter is to teach you thesenew techniques and so this chapter assumes that you’ve got a fairly good workingknowledge of basic substitutions with integrals. In fact, most integrals involving“simple” substitutions will not have any of the substitution work shown. It is going to beassumed that you can verify the substitution portion of the integration yourself.Also, most of the integrals done in this chapter will be indefinite integrals. It is alsoassumed that once you can do the indefinite integrals you can also do the definiteintegrals and so to conserve space we concentrate mostly on indefinite integrals. There isone exception to this and that is the Trig Substitution section and in this case there aresome subtleties involved with definite integrals that we’re going to have to watch out for.Here is a list of topics that are covered in this chapter.
Integration by Parts
– Of all the integration techniques covered in this chapter this is probably the one that students are most likely to run into down the road in other classes.
Integrals Involving Trig Functions
– In this section we look at integrating certain products and quotients of trig functions.
Trig Substitutions
– Here we will look using substitutions involving trig functions anhow they can be used to simplify certain integrals.
Partial Fractions
– We will use partial fractions to allow us to do integrals involvingrational functions.
Integrals Involving Roots
– We will take a look at a substitution that can, on occasion, be used with integrals involving roots.
Integrals Involving Quadratics
– In this section we are going to look at integrals thatinvolve quadratics.
Using Integral Tables
– Here we look at using Integral Tables as well as relating newintegrals back to integrals that we already know how to do.
Integration Strategy
– We give a general set of guidelines for determining how toevaluate an integral.
Improper Integrals
– We will look at integrals with infinite intervals of integration andintegrals with discontinuous integrands in this section.
 
© 2004 Paul Dawkins
3
Comparison Test for Improper Integrals
– Here we will use the Comparison Test todetermine if improper integrals converge or diverge.
Approximating Definite Integrals
– There are many ways to approximate the value of adefinite integral. We will look at three of them in this section.
Integration by Parts
Let’s start off with this section with a couple of integrals that we should already be ableto do to get us started. First let’s take a look at the following.
 x x
dx c
= +
ò 
ee
So, that was simple enough. Now, let’s take a look at,
2
 x
dx
ò 
e
To do this integral we’ll use the following substitution.
2
122
u x du xdx xdx du
= = Þ =
 
22
111222
u u
 x x
 x dx du c c
= = + = +
ò ò 
eeee
Again, simple enough to do provided you remember how to dosubstitutions. By the waymake sure that you can do these kinds of substitutions quickly and easily. From this point on we are going to be doing these kinds of substitutions in our head. If you have tostop and write these out with every problem you will find that it will take to significantlylonger to do these problems. Now, let’s look at the integral that we really want to do.
6
 x
dx
ò 
e
If we just had an
 x
by itself or 
6
 x
e
by itself we could do the integral easily enough. But,we don’t have them by themselves, they are instead multiplied together.There is no substitution that we can use on this integral that will allow us to do theintegral. So, at this point we don’t have the knowledge to do this integral.To do this integral we will need to use integration by parts so let’s derive the integration by parts formula. We’ll start with the product rule.
( )
 f g f g f
¢¢ ¢= +
 
 Now, integrate both sides of this.
( )
 f g dx f g f g dx
¢¢ ¢= +
ò ò 
 
The left side is easy enough to integrate and we’ll split up the right side of the integral.
 fg f g dx f g dx
¢ ¢= +
ò ò 
 

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