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25342122 State of the Economy

25342122 State of the Economy

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Published by: subhasishmajumdar on Jan 20, 2010
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State of the Economy
CHAPTER
1
1.2Despite the slowdown in growth, investmentremained relatively buoyant, growing at a rate higherthan that of GDP. The ratio of fixed investment toGDP consequently increased to 32.2 per cent ofGDP in 2008-09 from 31.6 per cent in 2007-08. Thisreflects the resilience of Indian enterprise, in theface of a massive increase in global uncertainty andrisk aversion and freezing of highly developedfinancial markets. A decline in all major elements ofprivate demand, including exports and consumption,necessitated a compensating widening of the fiscaldeficit above the Fiscal Responsibility and BudgetManagement Act (FRBMA) target. The new, higherexpenditures announced during the 2008-09 budget,which would have been offset by greater revenuemobilization, had to be supplemented by anadditional fiscal expansion. This got reflected in anincrease of 20.2 per cent in government finalconsumption expenditure during 2008-09. The effectof this and subsequent fiscal stimuli (e.g. exciseand service tax reduction) on private demand wouldbe expected to appear gradually with a lag. Needlessto say it is an imperative to return to the FRBMtargets for the fiscal deficit at the earliest, possiblyby 2010-11.1.3A noteworthy development during the yearwas a sharp rise in Wholesale Price Index (WPI)inflation followed by an equally sharp fall, with theWPI inflation falling to unprecedented level of closeto zero per cent by March 2009. This was drivenlargely by the rapid rise and equally rapid fall inglobal commodity prices during January 2008 toMarch 2009. Global food prices also went througha similar cycle, but have not declined to the sameextent. Though domestic food prices are partiallydelinked from global prices, these globaldevelopments affected domestic prices to someextent. Domestic food price inflation, as measuredby the WPI food sub-index, though declining,remains much higher than overall inflation.1.4The global financial meltdown andconsequent economic recession in developedeconomies have clearly been major factor in India’seconomic slowdown. Given the origin and dimensionof the crisis in the advanced countries, which somehave called the worst since the Great Depression,every developing country has suffered to a varyingdegree. No country, including India, remainedimmune to the global economic shock.
E
conomic growth decelerated in 2008-09 to 6.7 per cent. This represented a declineof 2.1 per cent from the average growth rate of 8.8 per cent in the previous five years(2003-04 to 2007-08). The five years of high growth has raised the expectations of the people. Few remember that during the preceding five-year period from 1998-99to 2002-03 average growth was only 5.4 per cent, while the highest growth rateachieved during the period was 6.7 per cent (in 1998-99). Per capita GDP growth,a proxy for per capita income, which broadly reflects the improvement in the incomeof the average person, grew by an estimated 4.6 per cent in 2008-09. Though thisrepresents a substantial slowdown from the average growth of 7.3 per cent perannum during the previous five years, it is still significantly higher than the average3.3 per cent per annum income growth during 1998-99 to 2002-03.
 
2
Economic Survey
 
2008-09
website: http://indiabudget.nic.in
E
CONOMIC
 
GROWTH
 
DURING
2008-09
Overall GDP growth
1.5The overall growth of GDP at factor cost atconstant prices in 2008-09, as per revised estimatesreleased by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO)(May 29, 2009) was 6.7 per cent. This is lower thanthe 7 per cent projection in the Mid-Year Review2008-09 (Economic Division, Department ofEconomic Affairs (DEA), December 2008) and theadvance estimate of 7.1 per cent, releasedsubsequently by CSO in February 2009. With theCSO drastically reducing their estimate of GDP fromagriculture (based on third advance estimates), andgiven that the DEA’s 7 per cent estimate assumednormal agricultural growth, it would have had to beadjusted for any shortfall. The growth of GDP at factorcost (at constant 1999-2000 prices) at 6.7 per centin 2008-09 nevertheless represents a decelerationfrom high growth of 9.0 per cent and 9.7 per cent in2007-08 and 2006-07 respectively (Table 1.1).1.6The deceleration of growth in 2008-09 wasspread across all sectors except mining & quarryingand community, social and personal services. Thegrowth in agriculture and allied activities deceleratedfrom 4.9 per cent in 2007-08 to 1.6 per cent in 2008-09, mainly on account of the high base effect of 2007-08 and due to a fall in the production of non-foodcrops including oilseeds, cotton, sugarcane and jute.The production of wheat was also marginally lowerthan in 2007-08.1.7The manufacturing, electricity andconstruction sectors decelerated to 2.4, 3.4 and 7.2per cent respectively during 2008-09 from 8.2, 5.3and 10.1 per cent respectively in 2007-08. Theslowdown in manufacturing could be attributed tothe combined impact of a fall in exports followed bya decline in domestic demand, especially in thesecond half of the year. The rise in the cost of inputsduring the beginning of the year and the cost of credit(through most of the year) reduced manufacturingmargins and profitability. The growth in productionsectors, especially manufacturing, was adverselyaffected by the impact of the global recession andassociated factors. The electricity sector continuedto be hampered by capacity constraints and theavailability of coal, particularly during the first half ofthe year. As long as the coal sector remains a publicsector monopoly (the only remaining nationalizedsector), it could remain a bottleneck for accelerateddevelopment of the power sector.1.8The construction industry consists of differentsegments like housing, infrastructure, industrialconstruction, commercial real estate, etc. While theindustry went through a boom phase with growth ashigh as 16.2 per cent in 2005-06 and continued togrow thereafter (albeit with moderation), the increasein the costs of construction due to a rise in the pricesof inputs like steel and cement and interest costshad started impacting the industry. In certainsegments of the industry, there was an excessiveprice build up in the form of a speculative bubble,related to limited supply of urban land for thosesegments. The rise in interest rates and the slowdownin housing loans also moderated demand. The doublesqueeze on the costs, as well as the demand side,and the fall in the liquidity in mid-September 2008precipitated a sharp downturn in this sector. Therefollowed a period (in the second half of the year)when demand had already moderated, but costsremained high.
Table 1.1 : Rate of growth at factor cost at 1999-2000 prices (per cent)
2003-042004-052005-062006-072007-082008-09
Agriculture, forestry & fishing10.00.05.84.04.91.6Mining & quarrying3.18.24.98.83.33.6Manufacturing6.68.79.111.88.22.4Electricity, gas & water supply4.87.95.15.35.33.4Construction12.016.116.211.810.17.2Trade, hotels & restaurants10.17.710.310.410.1*Transport, storage & communication15.315.614.916.315.5*Financing, insurance, real estate &business services5.68.711.413.811.77.8Community, social & personal services5.46.87.15.76.813.1Total GDP at factor cost8.57.59.59.79.06.7
Source : Central Statistical Organisation.* Trade, hotels & restaurants, transport & communication (together) grew at 9 per cent, 2008-09.
 
3
State of the Economy
website: http://indiabudget.nic.in
1.9The higher growth in community, social andpersonal services during 2008-09 was mainly due toan expansionary fiscal policy that was reflected inthe demand side of GDP as higher growth ofGovernment consumption expenditure.
Quarterly growth
1.10The slowdown in growth of GDP is moreclearly visible from the growth rates over successivequarters of 2008-09. In the first two quarters of 2008-09, the growth in GDP was 7.8 and 7.7 per centrespectively. The growth fell to 5.8 per cent in thethird and in the fourth quarters of 2008-09 (comparedto 9.3 and 8.6 per cent in Q3 and Q4 of 2007-08).The third quarter witnessed a sharp fall in the growthof manufacturing, construction, trade, hotels andrestaurants. Agriculture growth also turned negativeadding a further dampener. On the other hand,community, social and personal services showed alarge increase from the second quarter, mainly dueto a step up in government expenditure. The lastquarter saw an added deterioration in manufacturingdue to the deepening impact of the global crisis anda slowdown in domestic demand (Table 1.2).
Industry and infrastructure
1.11Though growth of the industrial sector startedto slow down in the first half of 2007-08, the overallgrowth during that year remained as high as 8.5 percent. The index of industrial production for the year2008-09 points towards a sharp slowdown withgrowth being placed at 2.4 per cent. Manufacturinggrowth was placed at 2.3 per cent in 2008-09 ascompared to 9.0 per cent in 2007-08. Mining grew at2.3 per cent in 2008-09 as against 5.1 per cent in2007-08 while electricity showed a deceleration ingrowth from 6.4 per cent in 2007-08 to 2.8 per centduring 2008-09. Slower growth in all use-basedcategories, except consumer durables, contributedto the deceleration in the industrial sector.1.12The performance of six core industriescomprising crude oil, petroleum refinery products,coal, electricity, cement and finished steel (carbon)grew at 2.7 per cent as compared to 5.9 per cent in2007-08. The growth in index for crude oil turnednegative 1.8 per cent as compared to positive 0.4per cent in 2007-08. There was a deceleration in thegrowth of cement and finished steel reflecting thenegative sentiments in the construction andmanufacturing sectors.
Agriculture production
1.13For three consecutive years (2005-06 to 2007-08), foodgrain production recorded an average annualincrease of over 10 million tonnes. The total foodgrainproduction in 2007-08 was estimated at 230.78 milliontonnes as against 217.3 million tonnes in 2006-07.1.14As per the third advance estimates, theproduction of foodgrains in 2008-09 is estimated tobe 229.85 million tonnes. In the third advanceestimates, there is an improvement of 1.97 milliontonnes over the second advance estimates for 2008-
Table 1.2 : Quarterly estimates of GDP 2007-08 and 2008-09(percentage change – y-o-y)
Sector(s)2007-082008-09Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4
Agriculture, forestry & fishing4.33.98.12.23.02.7-0.82.7Mining & quarrying0.13.84.24.74.63.74.91.6Manufacturing10.08.28.66.35.55.10.9-1.4Electricity, gas & water supply6.95.93.84.62.73.83.53.6Construction11.013.49.76.98.49.64.26.8Trade, hotels, transport &communication13.110.911.713.813.012.15.96.3Financing, insurance, real estate &bus. services12.612.411.910.36.96.48.39.5Community, social & personalservices4.57.15.59.58.29.022.512.5GDP at factor cost (total 1 to 8)9.29.09.38.67.87.75.85.8
Source : Central Statistical Organisation.

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