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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 The Discovery of Bainite
1.2 The Early Research
1.2.2 The Incomplete Reaction Phenomenon
1.2.3 Carbon Redistribution
1.3 Bainitic Steels: Industrial Practice
1.4 Summary of the Early Research
2 Bainitic Ferrite
2.1 Sheaves of Bainite
2.1.2 Thickness of bainite plates
2.2 Dislocation Density
2.2.1 Quantitative Estimation of Dislocation Density
2.3 Chemical Composition
2.3.1 Substitutional Alloying Elements
2.3.2 Interstitial Alloying Elements
2.4 Crystallography
2.4.1 Autocatalytic Nucleation
2.5 Crystallographic Theory
2.5.1 Application to Bainite
2.5.2 High-Resolution Studies of the Shape Change
2.5.3 The Shape Change: Further Considerations
2.5.4 The Shape Change and the Superledge Mechanism
2.5.5 The Structure of the Interface
2.5.6 The Crystallography of a Lath of Bainite
2.5 Microstructure of Bainite: The Midrib
3 Carbide Precipitation
3.1 Upper Bainite
3.2 Lower Bainite
3.2.1 Precipitation within Lower Bainitic Ferrite
3.2.2 Precipitation between Lower Bainitic Ferrite Platelets
3.3 Kinetics of Carbide Precipitation
3.3.1 Partitioning and Distribution of Carbon
3.3.2 Kinetics of Precipitation from Residual Austenite
3.3.3 Kinetics of Precipitation within Bainitic Ferrite
3.4 Crystallography of Carbide Precipitation in Bainite
3.4.1 Cementite: Orientation Relationships
3.4.2 The Habit Plane of Cementite
3.4.3 Three-Phase Crystallography
3.4.4 Interphase Precipitation
3.4.5 Relief of Strain Energy
3.5 Chemical Composition of Bainitic Carbides
4 Tempering of Bainite
4.2 Tempering Kinetics
4.3 Tempering of Steels Containing Austenite
4.3.1 Redistribution of Substitutional Solutes
4.3.2 Decomposition of Austenite
4.4 Coarsening of Cementite
4.5 Secondary Hardening and the Precipitation of Alloy Carbides
4.6 Changes in the Composition of Cementite
4.6.1 Remanent Life Prediction
4.6.2 Theory for Carbide Enrichment
4.6.3 Effect of Carbon on Carbide Enrichment
4.7 Sequence of Alloy Carbide Precipitation
4.7.1. Effect of Starting Microstructure on Tempering Reactions
4.8 Changes in the Composition of Alloy Carbides
4.9 Precipitation Hardening with Copper
5 Thermodynamics
5.1 Deviations from Equilibrium
5.2 Chemical Potential
5.3 Stored Energy due to Transformation
5.4 Thermodynamics of Growth
5.4.1 Substitutional Solutes during Growth
5.4.2 Interstitial Solutes during Growth
5.4.3 Approach to Equilibrium
6 Kinetics
6.1 Thermodynamics of Nucleation
6.1.1 Transformation-Start Temperature
6.1.2 Evolution of the Nucleus
6.2 Possible Mechanisms of Nucleation
6.3 Bainite Nucleation
6.4 Empirical Equation for the Bainite-Start Temperature
6.5 The Nucleation Rate
6.6.1 Theory for the Lengthening of Plates
6.6.2 Growth Rate of Sheaves of Bainite
6.6.3 Growth Rate of Sub-Units of Bainite
6.8.2 The Interface Response Functions
6.9 Cooperative Growth of Ferrite and Cementite
6.10 Overall Transformation Kinetics
6.10.2 Mechanistic Formulation of the Avarmi Equation
6.10.3 Austenite Grain Size Effect
6.10.4 Anisothermal Transformation Kinetics
6.11 Simultaneous Transformations
6.11.2 Precipitation in Secondary Hardening Steels
6.11.3 Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Diagrams
6.11.5 Boron, Sulphur and the Rare Earth Elements
6.12 Superhardenability
6.13 The Effect of Chemical Segregation
6.14 Martensitic Transformation in Partially Bainitic Steels
7 Upper & Lower Bainite
7.1 The Matas and Hehemann Model
7.2 Quantitative Model
7.2.1 Time to Decarburise Supersaturated Ferrite
7.2.2 Kinetics of Cementite Precipitation
7.2.3 Quantitative Estimation of the Transition Temperature
7.2.4 Comparison of Theory and Experimental Data
7.3 Mixed Microstructures Obtained By Isothermal Transformation
7.4 Other Consequences of the Transition
7.5 Comparison with the Tempering of Martensite
8 Stress and Strain Effects
8.1 The Mechanical Driving Force
8.2 The Bd Temperature
8.3 General Observations
8.3.1 Externally Applied Stress
8.3.2 Internally Generated Stress
8.4 Plastic Deformation and Mechanical Stabilisation
8.4.1 Technological Implications of Mechanical Stabilisation
8.5 The Effect on Microstructure
8.6 The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure
8.7 Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite
8.8 Transformation under Constraint: Residual Stresses
8.9 Anisotropic Strain due to Transformation Plasticity
8.10 Stress-Affected Carbide Precipitation
9 From Bainite to Austenite
9.1 Heating a Mixture of Austenite and Upper Bainitic Ferrite
Bainitic Ferrite
9.1.2 Estimation of the Parabolic Thickening Rate Constant
9.2 Anisothermal Transformation
9.3 Heating a Mixture of Cementite and Bainitic Ferrite
10 Acicular Ferrite
10.1 General Characteristics and Morphology
10.2 Mechanism of Growth
10.3 Mechanism of Nucleation
10.4 Nucleation and The Role of Inclusions
10.4.4 Nitrogen, Titanium and Boron
10.5 Effect of Inclusions on the Austenite Grain Size in Welds
10.6 In¯uence of Other Transformation Products
10.6.1 Some Speci®c Effects of Allotriomorphic Ferrite
10.7 Lower Acicular Ferrite
10.8 Stress-Affected Acicular Ferrite
10.9 Effect of Strain on the Acicular Ferrite Transformation
10.10 Inoculated Acicular Ferrite Steels
10.10.1 Structural Steel
10.10.3 Steelmaking Technology for Inoculated Alloys
11 Other Morphologies of Bainite
11.1 Granular Bainite
11.3 Columnar Bainite
11.5 Grain Boundary Lower Bainite
12 Mechanical Properties
12.1 General Introduction
12.2 The Strength of Bainite
12.2.2 Tensile Strength
12.2.4 Effect of Tempering on Strength
12.2.5 The Strength Differential Effect
12.2.6 Temperature Dependence of Strength
12.3 Ratio of Proof Stress to Ultimate Tensile Strength
12.4.1 Ductility: The Role of Retained Austenite
12.5 Impact Toughness
12.5.1 Fully Bainitic Structures
12.6 Fracture Mechanics Approach to Toughness
12.6.1 Microstructural Interpretation of KIC
12.7 Temper Embrittlement
12.7.1 6508C Reversible Temper Embrittlement
12.7.3 300!3508C Tempered-Martensite Embrittlement
12.8 Fatigue Resistance of Bainitic Steels
12.8.2 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate
12.8.3 Fatigue in Laser-Hardened Samples
12.8.4 Fatigue and Retained Austenite
12.9.5 Enhanced Cr±Mo Bainitic Steels
12.9.6 Tungsten-Strengthened Steels
12.9.7 Regenerative Heat Treatments
12.9.9 Transition Metal Joints
12.10 Reduced-Activation Steels
12.11 Steels with Mixed Microstructures
13.1 Alternatives to the Ferrite±Pearlite Microstructure
13.4 Controlled-Rolling of Bainitic Steels
13.4.1 Crystallographic Texture
13.5 Rapidly Cooled Control-Rolled Steels
13.5.1 Pipeline and Plate Steels
13.6 Steels with High Formability
13.6.2 Transformations During Intercritical Annealing
13.7 Ultra-Low-Carbon Bainitic Steels
13.8 Bainitic Forging Steels
13.9 High Strength Bainitic Steels without Carbides
13.11.2 Silicon-rich Carbide-free Bainitic Rail Steels
13.12 Bainitic Cast Irons
13.12.1 Austempered Ductile Cast Irons
13.12.2 Wear of Bainitic Cast Irons
14 Other Aspects
14.1 Bainite in Iron and its Substitutional Alloys
14.2 The Weldability of Bainitic Steels
14.3 Electrical Resistance
14.4 Internal Friction
14.6 Bainite in Iron±Nitrogen Alloys
14.7 Effect of Hydrogen on Bainite Formation
15 The Transformations in Steel
15.2 Notes Related to Table 15.1
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Bainite in Steel

Bainite in Steel

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Published by arcr86
knowledge is something that everyone should have access and so boundless. ARCR86
foundrymanbrazil@hotmail.com
knowledge is something that everyone should have access and so boundless. ARCR86
foundrymanbrazil@hotmail.com

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Published by: arcr86 on Jan 20, 2010
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