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American History Take Home Final Exam (48 hour turnaround!)

American History Take Home Final Exam (48 hour turnaround!)

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Published by kathleen

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Published by: kathleen on Jan 21, 2010
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10/23/2012

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Kathleen FitzgeraldAmerica—Take Home FinalProfessor St. John, Fall 2006
History 1639: The Expanding United States, 1803-1917 Take Home Final Exam
Identifications (6)
(1)“They occupy a territory to which we assert a title independent of their will,which must take effect in point of possession when their right of possessionceases. Meanwhile they are in a state of pupilage. Their relation to theUnited States resembles that of a ward to his guardian.”(Cherokee Nation vs. State of Georgia, 1831)
This quote originates in the 1831 response Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall offeredto the Cherokee Nation after the Cherokees accused Georgia of unconstitutionallylegislating for Indian removal despite the fact that Cherokee Nation, as an independent,“foreign state,” was not liable to U.S. state laws. Penned the year following the IndianRemoval Act of 1830, Marshall’s quote reflects what even moderate Americans of thetime (in contrast to the far more radical responses offered by Johnson and Baldwin in thesame document) believed about the United States’s right to territorial expansion as wellas its paternalistic role toward subordinate cohorts like Native Americans and slaves.
1
Marshall’s paradoxical claims that (1) the U.S. Constitution demarcated Indians as beingseparate from the protected “foreign nation” category, thereby leaving states to deal withIndians however they desired and (2) that U.S. subgroups like the Indians (andsimultaneously, the slaves) needed to be told what to do by their “American parent” because they were like mildly ignorant pupils in life set the stage for both the Trail of Tears in 1838 and the claims by Southerners (less than three decades later) that it was theright of civilized and paternalistic states to control their relationships with (and rights to)slaves.
(2)“Self-interest makes the employer and free laborer enemies. The one prefersto pay low wages, the other needs high wages. War, constant war, is theresult, in which the operative perishes, but is not vanquished; he is hydra-headed, and when he dies two take his place. But numbers diminish hisstrength. The competition among laborers to get employment begets anintestine war, more destructive than the war from above. There is but oneremedy for this evil, so inherent in free society, and that is, to identify theinterests of the weak and the strong, the poor and the rich.”(George Fitzhugh’s “Slavery Justified,” 1854)
This quote comes from the latter part of George Fitzhugh’s intellectual treatise infavor of slavery titled, “Slavery Justified.” Written less than a decade before the CivilWar, the quote encapsulates Fitzhugh’s economic argument that an entirely free societyleads the innately less intelligent (presumably the slaves during the ante-bellum period)into a system that naturally destroys their well-being and livelihood by pitting each
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This reflected a definite shift in ideas of U.S. empowerment when contrasted to the letter PresidentThomas Jefferson sent to Meriwether Lewis in 1803 in which he advised Lewis to treat Indian chiefs likeforeign dignitaries by inviting them to the U.S. capital.
1
 
unarmed slave against his brother in a war of underbidding and competition while thewhite employers, who had formerly provided for and taken care of their “employees” (i.e.slaves) simply watch with glee. In the post-Second Great Awakening period, themorality argument against slavery was gaining steam as American leaders and anti-slavery conventions railed against the immoral and unreligious treatment of slaves,arguing that it violated the Christian principle of stewardship. Claiming that the slavesystem actually served the practical interests of black slaves through domestication and paternalism (both of which provided culture, shelter, food, and medicine for slaves) andcontrasting that with examples of European and ancient free trade nations where theworking class fared far worse, Fitzhugh forcefully undercut the abolitionist argument that purported slaves would be better provided for under God’s natural law if Americaadopted a free labor system. Fitzhugh openly admits that his aim in writing this isintended to re-invigorate the resolve of his fellow pro-slavery Southerners byemboldening their cause with economic sense and subtle righteousness. 
(3)“Through political organization, historical and polemic writing and moralregeneration, these men strove to uplift their people. It is the fashion of to-day to sneer at them and to say that with freedom Negro leadership shouldhave begun at the plow and not in the Senate—a foolish and mischievous lie;two hundred and fifty years that black serf toiled at the plow and yet thattoiling was in vain till the Senate passed the war amendments; and twohundred and fifty years more the half-free serf of to-day may toil at his plow,but unless he have political rights and righteously guarded civic status, hewill remain the poverty-stricken and ignorant plaything of rascals, that he isnow.”(W.E.B. Dubois’s “The Talented Tenth,” 1903)
This quote is excerpted from W.E.B. Dubois’s 1903 article, “The Talented Tenth.” This passage is particularly evocative in expressing Dubois’s overall opinion that Negroeswere never able to simply rise up from their powerless positions at the plow; instead, theliberation, education, and overall empowerment of both the ante-bellum and post-CivilWar black community had always been the result of black intelligentsia leaders likeDouglass and Hughes taking a legal and systematic approach toward governmental andsocietal appeals. Written during the Progressive era in which political parties ruled theland, and overall politics were very interest-driven, Dubois and other black intellectualslike him realized that legalized black enfranchisement like the earlier Black Codes,1876’s U.S. vs. Cruikshank (which allowed white hotel owners to refuse to house blacks)would never truly transform into racial equality unless combated from
within
thelegislative system. Throughout the article, Dubois attempts to counter other black leaderslike Booker T. Washington who espouse appealing to white paternalistic fears as a meansof gaining racial equality; DuBois undercuts Washington’s argument by offeringexamples that show how those who sat behind the “plow” without taking their cause tothe Senate never made great headway and would not succeed in the 20
th
century either.
(4)“The American people have steadily and irresistibly taken whatever landthey felt they needed for any purpose, because the course of empire and themovement of the race could not be stayed.”
(Henry Cabot Lodge’s “The American Policy of Territorial Expansion,” 1891)
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Written in 1891 during the Hawaiian annexation controversy, this quote from HenryCabot Lodge reflects a widely-held opinion of his day that it was in the interest of America’snational security (strategic military bases) and in the interest of those who occupied U.S.-soughtlands for the United States to
annex
the territory of Hawaii rather than establish “dollar diplomacy” or economic imperialism there. Directly disagreeing with the Hawaiian sugar cane planters who begged the U.S. not annex Hawaii since regulations and taxes would harm their  business, this entire paper reflects Cabot Lodge’s sentiments that 19th-century America hadalready annexed approximately 2,800,000 square miles of land and was simply remainingconsistent with that policy in the Pacific theater. Cabot’s description of the U.S.
needing 
to annexHawaii without pausing or consulting with the indigenous peoples since territorial expansion“could not be stayed” reflects a popular response to the pre-Progressive argument that the U.S.should apply logic to imperialism by sitting down with European leaders and parceling upstrategic lands. According to Cabot Lodge, the U.S. now had the third strongest navy in theworld and was viewed as an international competitor by European nations, which would inhibitany so-called “Progressive” attempts at peaceful international parceling of desired lands; CabotLodge’s support of Hawaii’s annexation reflects his paradoxical isolationist-expansionisttendencies in the sense his proposal prevented the U.S. from dealing with other nations.
(5)“I will say here, while upon this subject, that I have no purpose directly orindirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where itexists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination todo so. I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality betweenthe white and the black races.”(Abraham Lincoln, The 1858 Ottawa, Illinois Stop on themulti-city tour of the philosophical “Lincoln-DouglasDebates”)
In this quote, Republican Abraham Lincoln is responding to Stephen Douglass’saccusation that “black Republicans” like Lincoln believed whites and blacks should beentirely equal, and popular sovereignty should not determine slavery in new states. Thisresponse, as well as the entire Lincoln-Douglas Debates, were really addressing thestates’ rights controversy that had arisen following the Compromise of 1850, “bleedingKansas,” and the Dred Scott decision, all of which reflected a brewing war between proponents of states’ rights and federal slavery containment. With its denial of an intentto equalize the races in all realms, this quote reflects Lincoln’s rebuttal to Douglas’s“black Republican” accusations. By maintaining that Republicans only believed in labor equality and not “political” and “social” equality for blacks, this quote provides insightinto the economic aspect of the slave debate that would incite the Civil War no less thantwo years later. Furthermore, this quote also reflects the appeasement and relativelymoderate stance taken by Lincoln which would garner enough support for him to win the presidential election just two years later. 
(6)“The sea of a mighty population, held in galling fetters, heaves uneasily inthe tenements. Once already our city, to which have come the duties andresponsibilities of metropolitan greatness before it was able to fairly measureits task, has felt the swell of its resistless flood. If it rise once more, nohuman power may avail to check it. The gap between the classes in which itsurges, unseen, unsuspected by the thoughtless is widening day by day. No
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Jed Diamond added this note
Kathleen, Thanks for posting some of your class papers. It's good to remember our history. I particularly enjoyed this piece. My wife has Cherokee heritage and she still participates with local support groups, including a walk from Chico to Round Valley (5 days and nights) to commemorate the death march that so many Native Americans were forced to take as they were rounded up and driven to Cov

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