Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
A New Approach_MuslimMahardika

A New Approach_MuslimMahardika

Ratings:

5.0

(1)
|Views: 24|Likes:
Published by heri suhud kustoyo

More info:

Published by: heri suhud kustoyo on Jan 21, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/10/2012

pdf

text

original

 
International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48 (2008) 746–760
A new approach on the determination of ease of machiningby EDM processes
Muslim Mahardika
a,
Ã
, Takayuki Tsujimoto
a
, Kimiyuki Mitsui
b
a
School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan
Received 16 November 2007; received in revised form 27 December 2007; accepted 31 December 2007Available online 12 January 2008
Abstract
Recently, the ease of machining a workpiece by electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes has been determined by
l
Á
y
theory,which is the product of the thermal conductivity (
l
) and melting point (
y
) of the workpiece in relation to the machining time. This paperpresents a fundamental study of the total energy of discharge pulses required to machine different workpiece materials, and a new theory,referred to as
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory, is proposed, where
r
is the electrical resistivity of the workpiece. Unlike the
l
Á
y
theory, the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theoryincludes the electrical resistivity of the workpiece material, because it involves the electric current transfer to create the discharge pulse.Using discharge pulse count monitoring, it was also revealed that the machining time cannot be used as a parameter to measure the easeof machining, since it is affected by many complications such as adhesion, cavitations, and short-circuiting. Parameters that areindependent of machining complications are introduced in order to measure the ease of machining; the total energy of discharge pulses,discharge pulse number, average discharge pulse energy, discharge pulse density, and tool electrode wear. The results show that thecoefficient of correlation for each parameter from the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory is much higher than the
l
Á
y
theory. Thus, the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory is betterthan the
l
Á
y
theory in determining the ease of EDM processes.
r
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Electrical discharge machining; Thermal conductivity; Melting point; Electrical resistivity;
l
Á
y
theory;
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory
1. Introduction
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes are nowgaining in popularity, since many complex 3D shapes canbe machined using a simple shaped tool electrode.Machining takes place by the discharge pulse from thecathode to the anode. Usually, the polarity is set, so thatthe workpiece acts as the anode and the tool electrode actsas the cathode, in order to obtain a higher material removalrate. The discharge pulse gap is relatively small, thus theaccuracy of components or parts manufactured by EDM isvery high. With EDM processes, workpiece surfacemodifications can be well controlled[1], and highlyaccurate geometric predictions can also be made[2].Therefore, in the area of precision engineering, manycomponents for the manufacturing, telecommunicationsand information industries can be fabricated with highaccuracy using EDM.However, the machining characteristics of EDM remainunclear, especially in regard to the total energy of dischargepulses and tool electrode wear, since the energy is not onlyused to machine the workpiece, but also degrades the toolelectrode. Hence, the accuracy of the components ma-chined by EDM is also influenced by the wear of the toolelectrode[3,4]. This paper presents a fundamental study of the total energy of discharge pulses required to machinedifferent workpiece materials, in order to increase theunderstanding of EDM processes.In EDM processes, the machining is independent of theworkpiece material hardness. Thus, all materials can bemachined, as long as they are electrically conductive[5].Recently, determining the ease of machining processeshas depended on the
l
Á
y
theory, which is the product of the thermal conductivity and the melting point of the
ARTICLE IN PRESS
www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmactool0890-6955/$-see front matter
r
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2007.12.012
Ã
Corresponding author. Tel.: +81455631141x42087;fax: +81455661495.
E-mail address:
 
workpiece material[6–9]. This theory uses only themachining time as a variable parameter to measure theease of the machining process. However, the machiningtime cannot be used as a parameter, because it is affectedby complications such as adhesion, cavitations, and short-circuiting[3,4]. Adhesion occurs when the melted compo-nent of the workpiece becomes attached to the toolelectrode, causing the discharge pulse to become unstableas a result of short-circuiting between the workpiece andtool electrode, and inhibiting the insulation recovery of theEDM machine. Adhesion causes the machining time tolengthen because the machine table is controlled to move inthe reverse direction of the feed to maintain the gapdistance between the workpiece and tool electrode. Whenadhesion, short-circuiting, and cavitations occur, it is noteasy to accurately predict the machining time. Accordingly,the machining time depends on the occurrence of thesecomplications[3,4,10–12].In this paper, the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory is proposed, in order toachieve a better understanding of EDM processes ingeneral. Unlike the
l
Á
y
theory, the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory considersthe effect of electrical resistivity, because electrical resistiv-ity is very important in the transfer process of electriccurrent to create the discharge pulse. Five kinds of parameters that are independent of machining time arealso introduced, in order to measure the ease of machiningby the EDM process. These parameters are the total energyof discharge pulses, discharge pulse number, average dis-charge pulse energy, discharge pulse density, and toolelectrode wear.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Fig. 1. Experimental set-up and measurement method: (a) micro-electric discharge machine and (b) enlarged view of machining part.Fig. 2. Machining types: (a) flat-head type and (b) shape-up type.Table 1The ease of machining order for different workpiece materials accordingto the
l
Á
y
theoryNo. Material
l
(W/mK)
y
(K)
l
Á
y
(W/m)1 SS (stainless steel) 16 1694 27,0002 Ti (titanium) 17 1943 33,0003 Ni (nickel) 60.7 1728 105,0004 Br (brass) 109 1173 128,0005 Fe (steel) 76.2 1808 138,0006 Pt (platinum) 69.1 2042 141,0007 Ta (tantalum) 54.4 3269 178,0008 Al (aluminum) 210 934 196,0009 Mo (molybdenum) 138 2890 399,00010 Ag (silver) 419 1235 517,00011 Cu (copper) 401 1356 544,00012 W (tungsten) 163.3 3643 594,900Table 2The ease of machining order for different workpiece materials accordingto the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theoryNo. Material
l
(W/mK)
y
(K)
r
(
O
cm)
l
Á
y
Á
r
(W
O
)1 Al (aluminum) 210 934 2.30E
À
06 0.00452 Ag (silver) 419 1235 1.55E
À
06 0.00803 Br (brass) 109 1173 7.00E
À
06 0.00894 Cu (copper) 401 1356 1.70E
À
06 0.00925 Ni (nickel) 60.7 1728 1.10E
À
05 0.01156 Fe (steel) 76.2 1808 9.70E
À
06 0.01347 Pt (platinum) 69.1 2042 1.06E
À
05 0.01508 Ti (titanium) 17.0 1943 5.54E
À
05 0.01839 SS (stainless steel) 16.0 1694 7.20E
À
05 0.019510 Ta (tantalum) 54.4 3269 1.25E
À
05 0.022211 Mo (molybdenum) 138 2890 5.70E
À
06 0.022712 W (tungsten) 163.3 3643 5.65E
À
06 0.03361
M. Mahardika et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48 (2008) 746–760
747
 
2. Experimental set-up and method
Twelve workpiece materials were used in this study:aluminum (Al), brass (Br), copper (Cu), steel (Fe),molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), silver(Ag), stainless steel (SS), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti),and tungsten (W). The diameter of the workpiece was300
m
m. Tungsten–silver (Ag–W) square plates with dimen-sions of 10
Â
10
Â
1.2mm were used as the tool electrodes.Ag–W was used because it has a good wear resistance andwidely used in the industrial field. In this research, we onlyused Ag–W as the tool electrode. In the future, we willmake a database in machining workpiece materials byusing different kind of tool electrode materials.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Fig. 3. Machining time for different workpiece materials, according to (a) the
l
Á
y
theory and (b) the
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory.Table 3Machining time for different workpiece materialsNo. (
l
Á
y
Á
r
theory) No. (
l
Á
y
theory) Material
t
m
(s) Average (s)1 2 3 4 51 8 Al 47.0 44.4 41.5 42.9 44.0 44.02 10 Ag 27.1 29.4 30.4 29.2 29.2 29.13 4 Br 26.0 24.4 25.1 26.1 27.1 25.74 11 Cu 29.4 30.9 28.3 28.5 30.4 29.55 3 Ni 30.7 28.8 28.7 28.8 29.3 29.36 5 Fe 39.8 40.3 39.8 35.1 33.1 37.67 6 Pt 31.6 29.6 29.4 26.5 26.9 28.88 2 Ti 29.6 29.8 30.8 29.7 29.9 30.09 1 SS 30.6 30.9 28.8 33.2 31.9 31.110 7 Ta 34.6 34.8 35.9 37.4 33.9 35.311 9 Mo 41.7 44.6 41.7 38.4 38.9 41.112 12 W 31.2 35.1 32.5 35.6 37.4 34.4
M. Mahardika et al. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48 (2008) 746–760
748

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->