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Related Literature Chapter 2

Related Literature Chapter 2

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Published by: luffy21 on Jan 21, 2010
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09/14/2010

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Review of Related Literature
I.
 
Definition of WastesII.
 
Classification of Wastes
A. Solid WasteB. Liquid WasteC. SludgeD. Hazardous Waste
III.
 
Waste Management
A. Waste Management in Developed Nations1. Solid WasteA) LandfillsB) RecyclingC) Incineration2. Liquid WasteA) Management PlansB) Waste Water Treatment FacilitiesC) Injection Wells3. Hazardous WasteA) LandfillB) IncinerationB. Waste Management in Developing Nations1. Solid WasteA) LandfillsB) RecyclingC) Incineration2. Liquid WasteA) Management PlansB) Waste Water Treatment FacilitiesC) Injection Wells3. Hazardous WasteA) LandfillB) IncinerationC. Waste Management: The Philippine Setting1. Solid Waste Management2. Liquid Waste Management3. Hazardous Waste Management
 
IV.
 
Threats of Improper Waste ManagementV. Initiatives for Liquid Waste Management
Review of Related Literature
I.
 
Definition of Wastes
Waste can be described as "any substance or object the holder discards, intends todiscard or is required to discard", as defined by the Waste Framework Directive(European Directive (WFD) 2006/12/EC), (amended by the new WFD (Directive2008/98/EC, coming into force in December 2010).In the Philippines¶ Republic Act No. 9275 (An Act Providing For aComprehensive Water Quality management and for Other Purposes), waste means
³anymaterial either solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gas or other forms resulting fromindustrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations, or from community and household activities that is devoid of usage and discarded.´
 
 
 
II.
 
Classification of Wastes
The classification of wastes varies and depends country by country. Waste can bedivided into many different types. The most common method of classification is by their  physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.1. Solid WasteSolid waste is broadly defined as including non-hazardous industrial, commercialand domestic refuse including household organic trash, street sweepings, hospital andinstitutional garbage, and construction wastes; generally sludge and human waste areregarded as a liquid waste problem outside the scope of MSW (Zerbock, 2003).These arewaste materials that contain less than 70% water. Example of this type of waste are thedomestic or household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfieldwastes such as drill cuttings.2. Liquid WasteThese are usually wastewaters that contain less than 1%. This type of waste maycontain high concentration of dissolved salts and metals. Liquid wastes are oftenclassified into two broad types: sewage and toxic wastes. Generally, there are varioustypes of liquid waste generated in urban centers: human excreta, domestics wastes produced in households, hospital wastes, industrial effluents, agricultural liquid wastesand nuclear wastes. When improperly handled and disposed of, liquid wastes pose a

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