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Basin Analysis

Basin Analysis

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Published by: sergiu_24 on Jan 21, 2010
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05/18/2013

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Basin AnalysisBasin Analysis
Introduction
Mechanisms of Basin Formation
Basin Classification
Basins and Sequence Stratigraphy
Summary
Introduction
Basin analysis -Study of sedimentary rocksto determine:
Subsidence history
Stratigraphic architecture
Paleogeographicevolution
Tools:
Geology (outcrops, wireline logs, core)
Geophysics (seismic, gravity, aeromag)
Computers (modeling, data analysis)
Introduction
What is a basin?
Repository for sediment
Formed by crustalsubsidence relative tosurrounding areas
Surrounding areas sometimes uplifted
Many different shapes, sizes andmechanisms of formation
Introduction
Zonationof the Earth –Composition
Crust
Mantle
Core
Introduction
Zonationof the Upper Earth –Rheology
Lithosphere
Rigid outer shell
Crust and upper mantle
 Asthenosphere
Weaker than lithosphere
Flows (plastic deformation)
 
Introduction
Zonationof the Upper Earth –Rheology
 Vertical motions (subsidence, uplift) insedimentary basins are primarily inresponse to deformation of lithosphereand asthenosphere
Introduction
Plate motions
Plate-plate interactions can generatevertical crustalmovements
We will examine basins according to theirpositions with respect to plateboundaries and plate-plate interactions
 “Wilson Cycle” –opening and closing of ocean basins
Introduction
Three types of plate boundaries:
Divergent plates moving apart
Mid-ocean ridges, rifts
Convergent plates moving towardseach other
Subductionzones
Conservative plates move parallel toeach other
Strike-slip systems
Mechanisms of BasinFormation
Major mechanisms for regionalsubsidence/uplift:
Isostaticchanges in crustalorlithosphericthickness
Loading –by thrust sheets, volcanic piles,sediment
Dynamic effects –asthenosphericflow,mantle convection, plumes
Mechanisms of BasinFormation
IsostaticProcesses:
Crustalthinning
Extensional stretching, erosion during uplift,magmaticwithdrawal
Mantle-Lithosphere Thickening
Cooling of lithosphere, following cessation of stretching or cessation of heating
Mechanisms of BasinFormation
IsostaticProcesses:
Crustaldensification
Density increase due to changingpressure/temperature conditions and/oremplacement of higher density melts intolower density crust
 
Mechanisms of BasinFormation
Loading:
Local isostaticcompensation of crust andregional lithosphericflexure
Dependent on flexural rigidity of lithosphere
Mechanisms of BasinFormation
Loading:
Sedimentary or Volcanic Loading
Tectonic loading
During overthrustingand/or underpulling
Subcrustalloading
Lithosphericflexure during underthrustingof dense lithosphere
Mechanisms of BasinFormation
Dynamic effects:
 Asthenosphericflow
Descent or delaminationof subductedlithosphere
Mantle convection
Plumes
Basin Classification
Many different classification systemshave been proposed
Principal factors:
Position of the basin in relation to platemargins
Crustal/lithosphericsubstratum
Oceanic, continental crust
Type of plate boundary
Basin Classification
Ingersolland Busby (1995): 26different types of basin (see handout)
Divided into various settings
Divergent
Intraplate
Convergent
Transform
Hybrid
Basin Classification
 Alternate approach (Allen and Allen,2005): focus on basin-formingprocesses
What causes subsidence?

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