January 2007 INPROL Consolidated Response (
) Page 1 of 9
Nepal is expected to conduct constituent assembly elections in 2007. ICITAP hasbeen approached to provide security training for the Nepalese police.
What "election specific" perspectives on police education/training are availablethat would be useful for structuring election security training for local and nationalpolice, focusing in particular on the nuanced aspects of assuring public accessand transparency in the process while, at the same time, maintaining physicalsecurity and accountability of ballots?
Election security is a specialized field presenting unique policing issues. Trainingprograms should be tailored to conditions in each context, as determined by adetailed threat assessment. The security response plan that is produced toaddress the threat should define police roles and responsibilities. Police trainingshould also take into account the way police and other security forces areperceived by the relevant communities. Instruction should seek to impart valuesof political neutrality, consistency, transparency, cooperation, and foresight.Accordingly, a training program for police tasked with providing election securityshould address the following:1. The elements of a threat assessment,2. The components of a security response plan, and3. Police training considerations.
1. Threat Assessment
A concise description of the electoral threat assessment process is provided byJeff Fischer based, in part, on his February 5, 2002 IFES white paper “ElectoralConflict and Violence: A Strategy for Study and Prevention.”The threat assessment seeks to identify and profile the likely victims,perpetrators and motives behind electoral conflict and violence. The victims canbe candidates, voters, monitors or media; however, electoral victimization can bedefined to include violence against electoral facilities, materials, or information.There are at least four categories of electoral violence that should be consideredin an electoral threat assessment: