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Gramatica rusa

Gramatica rusa

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Published by axxa424

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Published by: axxa424 on Jan 21, 2010
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04/12/2015

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Un locimportantn lucrarel ocupischemeleitabeleleinoptice,are scotin eviden!6elementeleele mai reprezentativeentrustructuralimbii ruseprintr-osintezilogico-vizuald.Exemplele,n schemeitabelesinoptice,n cadrultextului,$intconstruitepebazaunuimaterialingvisticaccesibilpentru cititor.Majoritateaacestorexertplecuexcepfiaelor dinexercilii)slnttradusen limbaromind.Prinacestrocedeuutoriiauasiguratunumaiaccesibilitateaor,daraucreatqi posi-bilitatea confruntiriistructuriicelor doullimbi. Exerciliilece insofescdiferitelecompartimenteramaticale uprindtraduceriqiretroversiuni,urmlrindu-seastfelflxareagicontrolulproblemelorparcurse.Succesiuneaivolumulexercigiilorufostcondilionatede caracterulemeirespective:aractermaimult saumaipulincontrastantprezenlasauabsenlacategorieiramaticale n limbaromdni,speci-ficulexprimdriieiin limbarusd n compara{ieu limbaromdni etc.).Depild6,numdrulexerciliiioraverb estemaimaredecitla substantivq'a.m'd'Inincheiere,Gramaticaeste nsolitide o cheieselectivia exerciliilor.Prezentaucrarenueste ogramaticd ontrastivi,ciogramatici descriptivdalimbiiruse,deoareceprocedeuldescriptivJinearestedominanlFiregte,ucrareanu epuizeazioateaspecteleegatede fenomeneleramaticaleprezentate, utoriistr[duindu-sesE ofeteproblemele-cheieiegramaticii imbiiru$e,necesare,nprimul rind, elevilorninvifarea acesteia.
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Substantivelenlimbarusi sedeosebescupd gen qiseschimbddup6numdrgicaz. Ele r[spund la intrebdrile:xro?(cine?),uro?(ce?).Substantiveleu se articuleaz,i.n limbarusdnu existda.rticol.Unlimbausdpoateiredatn limbaomdndarticulatsaunu.Compara{i:
.fl uumd"n poru6x.-Ezamcitit un roman.fruumdltpolain<<AanaRapdnww>.-Euam czTitomanu!,,AnnaKareninaoo.8ponrineuadeo eepdee.-In rcmansint mullieroi.
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Observalie.lnlimbarus6genul neutruesteungenindependen!cuterminatiispecifice(atitlasingular,itqiaplural)'$2.Majoritateasubstantivelorin specialelecaredenumescbiecte),otfigru..p*n.genuri,duplcriteriigramaticale,dicidupifelulterminafiei'Prinurmare'a..or*origenulsubstantivelorinlimbarusiestediferitdegenulsubstantivelori**at"".*caceleaqiobiecte)dinlimbaromini'deex':rcnacc(m')-clasiiif.);o*O(n.)-fereastr'If.);rerpiar(f')-caiet(n')'.,.concordanladintregen.qisensesterespectatl|anumeledepersoane,fieco.mune:or6q(m.;,rr'Iarr*6'),tt,ftot"(m'),yrrfire.nrunuaf')'g6rymrcaf')',0"r."(m.),fieproprii:Cima,A'rerccfrm(m');O'ru'Omra(f');K6as'Hrno'nrifi(m.), indiferentdeterminatie'IRw[lUnelesubstantive,degiautermina{iaspecific[genului feminin-a(:s),denumescpersoanedesexmasculin'deex':xfiIls*unchi'96'rymrca-bunic,'uyxqnsa-b6rbat"rrfua-tat6'(moua-tinir'precum9idiminu-tiveleunorntmebErbdtegti,ca:CepExa-det'aCepr6i;AnEua-delaAlerc6fi;Biusdelal{nriuq.a.$3.Substantivelecaredenumescprofesiisaufuncsiisintingeneraldegenulmas-;Un,astfel:nsArr6r,Bplq'ce*per6pquexilnr,glp6rc'rop,por[6ccop'chiardac6eleserefer[laoporsoanidesexfeminin,d:ex:oni-xopiwlrT4np6nrop-;Eaesteunilirectorbuz'4.substantivv|rnoedput4indicdatitpgrsoanedesexmasculiu,cttqidesexfrrnioio,deex:Toripurq?Inaxiraydupdrcmopa'Tovrr[;aIvanoveste la,dirrrtorl,Torflplqclrnpn6l6aeuuxopoti|pa66rnaetn.TovariqulSmirnovIucreazdoartebine.Unelecuvintetermioatein-a('o):cnpori(orfan),fmruqa(omdegtept'ouminte),parrlul(gur6-casci),gidefinescenul n funcliedesexulpersoanei acargserefer6,deex':Smomuilnr.rrr-cnpor6.-Acestiiatesteorfitl3maA6sosxa-cupor6'-.Aceastifatieste orfanl'substantivulcorldrasepoaf.e eferi,deasemenga'atitlapersoanede sexmasculinnltgi laceledesexfemiuin'deex':Ouuoitrcoln6ra.Elestecoic;ulmru;O116acrtlr.tirr6ra' 'Eaestecolegamea.Diutrecuvintelecedenumesspefsollnounsiugursubstantivestedegenulneutruaurrficopil.)Acestassfoloscatear'fiinCinlocuitdc cuvintulpedtuorc'$4.lnlimbarusdexistlsubstantive3gonirl n:utraterminaten-Ms'Dintre"i.ot"maiuzualesinturm[toareie:fi'{':!(n..rr:r:!,np6ul(timp),rrr6rrrr(drapel),n.rl6urflacdri),c6n'rn.slmiu![)'6Ex.; TeoE iiun.Aaexcdudpa.Nnmele,AuesteAlexondra.lmonaweaeoflddaoep6rur._Acestaerletimpulnostruiber.
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py6to(rubl6)cnemtdxltt(spectacol)cmuat(stil)cyxripa(pesmet)mdnoao(plop)mynndtu(tunel)y'aozucirbune)j,poeeaonivel)$ondpo(felinar)Axopa (ancord)avudm(orz)Substantiveleusufixele-rqrrrJnaiTetts,ucdrew,mixaps(strungar),mescprofesii.Denumirileuniiorsinttotde genulmasculin:mdpr,Qeupri,u,.a.m.d.Ei-aprsintde6u6tuomCxapt.masculin,deex.-substantivedenu:;6oao(durerc)eapadaoarmonicd)eitum(pieire)epydopiept)aptro(murdirie)daa(depdrtare)aemdn(vifor)uoptiau(moral[)awcm(gjnd)aefimo(petrol)numu{ald)6cenu(toamnd)pon(ro1)pmJ,mbmercur)ccaealegituri)capdrc(liliac)cxdmepmofaf6demasi)cn'tepmbmoarte)
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6oldsut,(boali)ttcusuo(viald)rarxo(execuiie, chin)cecma(veste)6./racmb(putere)zpycmb(tristefe)sdeucmuinvidie)rucmu(pensuld)xocmu(os)uecmu(rdzbunate)uinaeucma(urd)nieecmt(nuveli)cdsecmt(conqtiin{i)cmpacmt'(Pasiune)uacmo(parte)vecrra(cinste)Luepcmblin6, stof6deind)nddnuct(semndturi)plxomtct(manuscris)cment(stepi)ryenalanl)6poaa(sprincean[)no66aa(dragoste),r,topx\aamorcov)d6yao(inc6116minte)
lncelelalteazurineadresdmicfionarului'Cuvinteinileclinabite(HecrlonfeMblecrloBa)$g.substantivelendeclinabilecedenumescbiecteneinsuflefitesintdegenulo"utru,deex.:tranlr6olerp6,xun6,6np6,gen6,urocc6;xnpfi,(iuriu), laprfio(pariu),TeKcf'rHTePBurb.a.CuvintulKotpestedegenul masculin:Oua'ao6um'Iipnsrftx6$e"-Eitiplacecnfeauaneagrd.Cuvinteleimprumutatecedenutnesciin1eKaKaAy'rco;rfi6pu'KeHr]rpy'uunoraRg6_poth, infuncliedecontext,titdegenul masculin,itEidegenulfeminin:nenrypjropuri;raceoez|denltubnaa*Cangurul(femela)tEialdptapuiul(genf.)8Genrl cuvlntuluicompus rescurtateste determinatde substantivuldebaziialgrupuluide cuvintedincarea fostalcituifdeex.: Iylf{(m.)(rocyadpcr-seEuufiyalIrepc6irrnrfturrarfix-magazinuniversaldestat).ri}C(f.)(ru4poeaexrpocriiuqnr-hidroceatrali).9roilrocx6scruftfVM.3ro6onrIu6sfOC.
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l-Traducelisubstantivelee maijos.Determinayi-leenulincomparalieculimbaromdnd.Model:oAexAa(f.)-imbrnclminte(f.)O,cdxAa,Maratriu,ca6ro,xocr(lu,nuc'urd, py66urxa,afi, u6clo,(l6xa,rinczyx,xae6,uanir6,nwtgrfua.,r,ronoi,d,apr6$enr,xanfc.ra,nropx6rr,x6Qe,h6nonx,paltlffi,vep6rrrrr,vr6fira,neps.2'Transcrieliurmdtoarelecuvintepetreicoroane,dupdgen (mascurin,feminin,neutru), punindlndreptulfecdruisubstantivtntrebareaxro? sau sro?Epar,uyedft,x<incrara,ov,oxnd,rerp4{r,,raparg6ur,arropfvxa,udpe,na6opar6put,asrorvro6dn6,eTs.,h;rr.,;fvra,46gyruxa,666ywxa,nr6rre,4r_n6u,ordq,n6ne, yrrirenr,pyxoE,n6prnx,covrti,sp6une,66em,4enr.3.Indicagigenulsubstantiveloremaijos.subliniagisufxulsaugrupuriledecon-soctneeerevdajutdsdledeterminali genul.IlNcireln.ulepcr6,cndcapr,rrr6*ogocrr,qecrb,xI{3IIb, r6xarncrr,uesarf-cl,IMocrb,rporirenr,n<itecrl,pyroro4*ienr,6ol6tur,6u6nuor6rcapr,64ocrl,aecru,udnoctr,r6xapr,4.Determinasienulsubstantiveloremaijos.asotcialiiecarecuvintclt unpronumepose,civauunadjectiv,otrivitcaser?siformd.Model:Cdura m.)-.{opor6fiC6rua;vo6rhvrr.C:irn4,g6*,craan,st6pr,\/lAmg,6rn6x;rr,poxr,ixopr,ruu6ur,rBo3As,tdnoar,cnerr6ur,ordm,uyrr,rp6ux,rarcri,sn6vx,xtopti,Iiruf,uocc6,neup,napdlr,rmrepnrr6,no.o.5.Asociayisubstantivelee maioscupronumeposesiveauad.jective, cordtniluJeingen.Undeesteposibil,daliceledoudvariantedegen.Model:lvroftxoln6ra,uoixonn6ra;6onru<ifiIVM.Konn6ra,crpor6, parfur,flaunua,npo$dccop,accip,cexpelipr, rrrex6rur;f3C,crenrae6ra,IVM'rys;r6Qe,6rcp6,rcolf6pu,xenrypj.6'Formaliscurtepropoziliicu cincidin tmbindrilede uninte oblinuteprinefec-tuareaexercitriului5,,tr**

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