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How We Fish Report

How We Fish Report

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Published by: Danny on Jan 21, 2010
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01/21/2010

 
Susanna D. Fuller, Candace Picco,Jennifer Ford, Chih-Fan Tsao,Lance E. Morgan, Dorthea Hangaard,Ratana Chuenpagdee
Addressing theEcological Impacts ofCanadian Fishing Gear
 
©2008 Ecology Action Centre, Living Oceans Society, and MarineConservation Biology Institute All rights reserved. Sections of this report may be copied with permissionsof the authors. Please acknowledge source on all reproduced materials.The research, data synthesis and writing of this report were sponsored bythe Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
COVERPHOTOS
Front cover:
LEFT
–Cold water corals are found on Canada's west andeast coast, and are vulnerable to the impacts of bottom tending fishinggear.
PHOTO
: Dale Sanders.
TOPRIGHT
–Endangered porbeagle sharks areoccasionally caught in bottom trawl fisheries for groundfish on Canada'seast coast.
PHOTO
: H.R. Yao.
BOTTOMRIGHT
–Fishing vessels equipped withbottom longline gear on Canada's east coast. H: IStock. Back cover:
TOP
–Large catches of sponges occur in Canada's arctic and deep waterfisheries.
PHOTO
: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
MIDDLE
–L
OBSTER
trapspiled high on wharves in Prince Edward Island.
PHOTO
: Shane McClure.
BOTTOM
–Herring fishery opening on the British Columbia coast.
PHOTO
:Bruce Burrows.Canadian Cataloguing in Publication DataFuller, Susanna D. 1973-How We Fish Matters: Addressing the Ecological Impacts of CanadianFishing GearSusanna D. Fuller (Ecology Action Centre), Candace Picco (Living OceansSociety), Jennifer Ford (Ecology Action Centre), Chih-Fan Tsao (MarineConservation Biology Institute), Lance E. Morgan (Marine ConservationBiology Institute), Dorthea Hangaard (Living Oceans Society), RatanaChuenpagdee (Memorial University of Newfoundland) All authors contributed equally to this report.Includes bibliographic references.ISBN 978-0-9734181-7-0Printed in Delta, BC, Canada
HOW WE FISH MATTERS
Contents
 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Common Terms Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3The Challenge of Managing Our Fisheries . . . . . . . . . . .4Fisheries in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Assessing Ecological Impacts of Fishing Gear . . . . . . . .6
Habitat Impacts, Bycatch and Discards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Rating Fishing Gear Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Survey Ranking of Fishing Gear Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Ranking Fishing Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Implications of Results for Fisheries Management,Science and Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
How and Where We Fish Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Monitoring, Research and Data Availability forEcosystem-Based Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Fisheries Policy and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Appendix 1. Workshop Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Afterword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Seiners are used in the British Columbia salmon fishery.
PHOTO
: Dale Sanders.
Printed on paper made with 100% PCW recycled fiber content using non-polluting wind-generated energy. Certified SmartWood for FSC standards. Green Seal certified. Acid free.Using this stock, on this small print run, we saved: 3.77 trees; 4.94 lbs (10.89 lbs) ofwaterborne waste; 6063.7 L (1,603 gallons) of wastewater; 80.3 kg (177 lbs) of solid waste;158.3 kg (349 lbs) of greenhouse gases; 2,672,400 BTUs of energy; 82.1 kg (181 lbs) ofair emissions; 12.2 m
3
(432 ft
3
 ) of natural gas. That’s the equivalent to not driving 197 milesin an average car or planting 12 trees.
 
In this study, we use the term
 fisherman
or
 fishermen
to referto men and women who make their livelihoods throughfishing. We do not use the word
 harvest 
 when referring to thecapture of wild marine species, as the term has agriculturalconnotations, which are not relevant to the natural productionof marine organisms. When referring to the action of fishing with bottom trawls, we use the word
trawling 
throughout thereport although we recognize that in the Atlantic Ocean,
dragging 
is more frequently used. We define
 habitat 
as thephysical seafloor and associated structure-forming speciesincluding but not limited to cold-water corals, sponges,hydroids, bryozoans and seaweed.
 Bycatch
refers generically to all non-target species brought onboard during any fishingactivity. Bycatch can be separated into bycatch that is kept andlanded as part of the commercial catch and bycatch that isdiscarded. Unless otherwise stated, the term bycatch in thisreport refers to all species caught incidentally during a fishery,and this report deals specifically with the impacts of fishinggear on discarded bycatch.1
AcknowledgementsCommon Terms Defined
Inspiration for this study came from the
National Advisory Process on the Impacts of Mobile Fishing Gear
 workshopheld in Montreal in March 2006. At that meeting, the report 
 Shifting Gears
, authored by Lance Morgan and Ratana Chuenpagdee, was identified as an essential review of fisheries,fishing gear, and their relative impacts on the marineenvironment in the United States. In Canada, both the Ecology  Action Centre and Living Oceans Society were conductingresearch on the impacts of fishing gear, and working to educatethe public and policy makers on the issue. They recognized that a better understanding of the impacts of all fishing gears usedin Canada is essential if the management of Canadian fisheriesand the marine environment is to improve.This project would not have come to fruition without theleadership and foresight of Jennifer Lash and Mark Butler. Norcould the study have been done without the participants at our
How We Fish in Canada 
 workshop or the fishermen,scientists, managers and conservationists who completed oursurvey. We would like to thank Sadie Beaton, John Guinotte,Elliott Norse, Elizabeth Rauer, Rachel Moffat, Rachel Antanacioand Susan Hollett, all of whom contributed to the project process and its successful completion. We also acknowledgethe valuable comments of Scott Wallace and Martin Willison onthis report and offer our thanks to the scenic and historic townof Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, which provided a topical setting forour consultative workshop.Finally, the authors gratefully acknowledge the Gordon andBetty Moore Foundation, and specifically Meaghan Calcari, forproviding funding and support.
Sandy habitats on Canada's east coast are home to clams, sand dollarsand bottom feeding fish species.
PHOTO
: Andrew Martinez.

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