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Computer Networks FAQs

Computer Networks FAQs

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Published by Amit Sangale

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Published by: Amit Sangale on Jan 22, 2010
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01/16/2013

 
Computer Networking, Security and Hacking FAQsNOTE :
This is just a quick effort to have some probable questions which can be askedduring your CNI viva. This is not an alternative to your reference books but just asupplement. Some questions are repeated and have multiple answers. So be alert whilereading it. And just don’t blame me for any errors found on this document.
-------ALL THE BEST-----------
Q.)What is the difference between a Hub, Switch, and Router
Ans: Hubs operate at ISO layer 1 - physical layer, Switches operates at ISO layer 2 - datalink layer, and Routers operate at ISO layer 3 - network layer.
HUB
When Ethernet was originally designed it used a single fat coax called a backbone.Individual hosts were physically connected to the backbone. This created a party line.Each host has to listen for the backbone to be idle before it started talking. It is possiblemore then one host will start talking at the same time, in that case the messages collidemaking them unintelligible. This condition is detected each transmitter stops talking andwaits a variable interval before attempting to talk again.The Ethernet network is called a collision domain, since all devices must wait until theline is clear, and may inadvertently interfere with one another.When Ethernet was modified to run over Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Category ratedwiring the original coax backbone was shrunk within the hub, called a collapsed backbone. Functionally a hub operates exactly as the old coax backbone. The ports on thehub provide a point-to-point connection to the Ethernet interface in each computer. Witha hub each node must wait for the network to be idle and detect collisions betweenmultiple nodes.
SWITCH
As Ethernet networks grew in speed and size the party line nature was recognized as a performance limitation. Switches eliminate the collision domain and work much like thetelephone switching system.When an Ethernet packet arrives at the switch the destination MAC address is examinedand the packet is switched to the proper port. Each Ethernet interface has a Media AccessController (MAC) 48-bit address assigned by the hardware vendor. The switchremembers which MAC addresses are connected to each port. If the Switch does notknow which port to use it floods the packet to all ports. When it gets a response it updatesits internal MAC address table.This means Port A can talk to C at the same time F is taking to B. This greatly increasesoverall performance even though it does not change the speed of individual connections.Because the collision domain is eliminated connections are able to use full duplex, hostscan transmit and receive at the same time improving performance even more.
 
ROUTER 
 A router is used to interconnect multiple networks.The Internet is literally
“Inter-network”
,a network of networks. Internet router’s work on IP addresses to determine how best to interconnect the sender to the destination.Because router’s work at the IP layer different physical networks can be interconnected,Ethernet, Token Ring, Sonet, even RS232 serial used for dialup can carry IP packets.Routers intended for home use include Network Address Translation (NAT). This allowsa single address assigned by the ISP to be shared by multiple hosts connected to the localnetwork.
Q.)Who Created the Internet Network?
Ans: Development of the technologies that became the Internet began decades ago. Thedevelopment of theWorld Wide Web (WWW)portion of the Internet happened muchlater, although many people consider this synonymous with creating the Internet itself.No single person or organization created the modern Internet, including Al Gore,Lyndon Johnson, or any other individual. Instead, multiple people developed the keytechnologies that later grew to become the Internet:
Email
- Long before the World Wide Web, email was the dominantcommunication method on the Internet. Ray Tomlinson developed in 1971 thefirst email system that worked over the early Internet.
Ethernet
- The physical communication technology underlying the Internet,Ethernetwas created by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs in 1973.
TCP/IP
- In May, 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers(IEEE) published a paper titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection."The paper's authors - Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn - described a protocol calledTCP that incorporated both connection-oriented and datagram services.This protocol later became known asTCP/IP.
Q.)What are TCP Ports?ANS:
Data transmitted over a network using the
T
ransport
C
ontrol
P
rotocol/
I
nternet
P
rotocol (TCP/IP), such as the Internet, includes address information that identifies thecomputer (32-bit IP address) and a port. Ports number (16-bit number) the ends of logical connections used for long-term data transfers between applications.For example port 80 is the standard
F
ile
T
ransfer 
P
rotocol (FTP) port used by
H
yper 
T
ext
T
ransfer 
P
rotocol (HTTP) to send and retrieve web pages. Service contact ports or "well-known ports" are used to provide services to unknown callers. Port numbers aredivided into three categories and ranges:
Well Known Ports
are those from 0 through 1023
Registered Ports
are those from 1024 through 49151
 
Dynamic and/or Private Ports
are those from 49152 through65535
 ismaintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
Q.)What are the differences between Category 3, 4, 5, etc. cableratings?Ans:
 
Level 1:
Basic telecommunications and power limited circuit cable.
Level 2:
Up to to 1 MHz.
Category 3 (CAT3)
is rated for transmission frequencies up to 16MHz.It is typically used for voice and data transmission rates up 10 Mbps (mega bits per second).Twisted-pair (not flat) phone wire.
CAT 4:
frequencies up to 20 MHz... Voice and data transmission rates up to 16 Mbps.
CAT 5:
frequencies up to 100 MHz... Voice and data transmission rates up to 100Mbps.
CAT 5e:
frequencies up to 100 MHz. CAT 5e components have better transmission performance characteristics than CAT 5 and are most suitable for use in high-speedGigabit Ethernets. Yes, 100 Mhz.
CAT 6
Supports transmissions up to 250 MHz.
Q.)What is the difference between an Ethernet hub and switch?ANS:
Although hubs and switches both glue the PCs in a network together, a switch ismore expensive and a network built with switches is generally considered faster than one built with hubs.When a hub receives a packet (chunk) of data ( frame int the Ethernet lingo)on thenetwork, it transmits (repeats) the packet to all of its ports and, thus, to all of the other PCs on the network.If two or more PCs on the network try to send packets at the same time a collision is saidto occur. When that happens all of the PCs have to go though a routine to resolve theconflict. The process is prescribed in the Ethernet Carrier Sense Multiple Access withCollision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol. Each Ethernet Adapter has both a receiver anda transmitter. If the adapters didn't have to listen with their receivers for collisions theywould be able to send data at the same time they are receiving it (full duplex). Becausethey have to operate at half duplex (data flows one way at a time) and a hub retransmitsdata from one PC to all of the PCs, the maximum bandwidth is 100 Mhz and that bandwidth is shared by all of the PC's connected to the hub. The result is when a person

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