Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Diseases in New Zealand Cattle & Dairy Herds

Diseases in New Zealand Cattle & Dairy Herds

Ratings: (0)|Views: 127|Likes:
Published by caseyzan
Diseases in New Zealand Cattle & Dairy Herds
By Qadosh Erectus Note: This article should be treated as a draft; it well be revised and amended when time permits. Although there are a number of different diseases infecting animals used as a source of food for human consumption only four are covered here.

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)
New Zealand cattle are infected a disease called the Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). This disease goes by several names such a BLV, Bovine Leukosis, Lymphosarcoma or Mal
Diseases in New Zealand Cattle & Dairy Herds
By Qadosh Erectus Note: This article should be treated as a draft; it well be revised and amended when time permits. Although there are a number of different diseases infecting animals used as a source of food for human consumption only four are covered here.

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)
New Zealand cattle are infected a disease called the Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). This disease goes by several names such a BLV, Bovine Leukosis, Lymphosarcoma or Mal

More info:

Published by: caseyzan on Jan 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/16/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Diseases in New Zealand Cattle & Dairy Herds
By Qadosh Erectus
 
Note:
This article should be treated as a draft; it well be revised and amended when time permits.Although there are a number of different diseases infecting animals used as a source of food for humanconsumption only four are covered here.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)
New Zealand cattle are infected a disease called the Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). This disease goesby several names such a BLV, Bovine Leukosis, Lymphosarcoma or Malignant Lymphoma. Within BLVinfected cows, the virus is associated with the white blood cells call lymphocytes. BLV is transferredfrom cow to cow or cow to calf in blood that contains the virus-laden lymphocytes. Very small amountsof blood have been experimentally shown to be capable of transmitting the virus. Many cows areinfected with BLV; however, only 2-5% of infected cows eventually develop tumours of the lymph nodesafter a prolonged incubation period. The sarcoma tumours that develop are the most common malignanttumour found in cattle. A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat,muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue.Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a bovine virus closely related to HTLV-I, a human tumour virus.Most infections (90%) take place early in the life of a calf when virus is transmitted in the milk. Somecalves are born infected. The mechanism for these in utero infections is not known. Infections can alsotake place by movement of blood from one cow to another through routine husbandry practices. There isa risk of transmission from ear tagging, gouge dehorning, tattooing, multiple animal needle use andrectal palpation.When exposed to the virus, not all cows become infected. Those that do become infected remaininfected for the remainder of their life. The virus seems to be able to hide within the lymphocytes fromthe cow’s immune system. Even though the cow develops antibody titers that can be measured in ablood sample, the virus is not inactivated by the immune system. BLV can readily be transmitted thoughmilk from a cow to her calf. Bloody milk may be particularly loaded with BLV.The most important disease caused by BLV is enzootic bovine leukosis, essentially a form of malignantlymphoma (ML). ML develops in only a small percentage of cattle infected with BLV, but it is a fataldisease characterized by lymphomatousinvolvement of multiple organs. These include lymph nodes, theheart, gastrointestinal tract (especially abomasum), liver, spleen, uterus, and kidneys. Cardiacinvolvement usually includes the right atrium and can result in congestive heart failure withsubcutaneous, ventral-dependent edema. Poor reproductive performance and palpable enlargement ofthe uterine wall or intra-pelvic lymph nodes are also indicators of ML. Dairy cows are more commonlyaffected with enzootic bovine leukosis than beef cattle.New Zealand butchers and slaughterhouse workers have increased risks of a number of cancers andBLV has been identified as a possible cause.Overseas research has shown that BLV can survive the milk pasteurisation process.As BLV can cross the species barrier from cattle to other animals, and taking into consideration theserious fact that BLV from cattle can be transmitted to primates, the relationship between BLV andcancer in humans must be urgently investigated.
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVD)
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVD) is a species of the genus
Pestivirus 
and is responsible for acosmopolitan disease affecting cattle and other ruminants. The disease presents a wide range of clinicalmanifestations, including abortions, congenital malformations, enteric, respiratory and neurologicaldisorders. A haemorrhagic syndrome with severe thrombocytopenia and high mortality also occurs. Theinfection is characterised by a transitional but severe and multi-functional immune depression whichexplains the high frequency of BVD-associated infections.
 
The BVD virus spreads by two methods (1) direct transmission between animals through physicalcontact and, (2) virus invading the foetus in a pregnant cow. If a cow is infected from 1 to 4 months ofpregnancy and the calf survives there is a strong chance that the calf will be born persistently infectedwith the virus and thus becomes a carrier.BVD can cross species lines thus infecting other animals, like sheep, goats, and chimpanzees; oncethey are infected they are prone to developing diseases associated with BVD. Estimates, from 2006,point to most New Zealand cattle herds being affected by the BVD virus at some point with more than60% showing evidence of recent infection.Pestivirus infections were thought to occur exclusively in animals but recent evidence suggestsotherwise. Research conducted overseas has shown the presence of anti-BVDV antibodies in 87% ofanimal handlers and veterinarians that were studied. Lower prevalence (15-16%) has been reported inadults. Another investigation among children under two years of age shown Pestivirus antigens werepresent in 24% of specimens from diarrhoea episodes that could not be explained by more commonenteric pathogens.The role of pestiviruses in human pathologies remains uncertain but observations suggest the potentialof causing emerging infections in humans. Some studies that have been done suggest a link betweenPestivirus and neurological disorders in humans.Sheep infected with the BVDV
Pestivirus 
leads to extensive necroses and cysts in the periventricularwhite matter and enlarged ventricles in lamb foetuses. This type of damage closely resembles that ofWMD (white matter damage) in preterm human children. Epidemiologic observations support thecontention that infection, inflammation, and neonatal white matter damage (WMD) are associated. Thereis also documentation from multiple experimental models that infection/inflammation can damagedeveloping white matter.In addition, BVD infection is accompanied by a decrease in thyroid hormone activity in lambs. Lowthyroid hormone values are also an important indicator of maldevelopment among preterm humaninfants.Given
Pestivirus 
tropism for nervous cells in animal pathology, these findings deserve further evaluationin order to examine the full extent of the problem in the human population.
Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus (BIV)
Bovine Immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) is a member of the
Lentivirus 
subfamily of retroviruses.The virus, bovine immunodeficiency-like virus, or BIV, is spread through the blood and is a member of afamily of slow-acting viruses that have been shown to reduce the activity of an animal's immune system.Its genetic structure is similar to the human AIDS virus. Bovine immunodeficiency viruses can also beproperly referred to as bovine AIDS virusIt is rare to see cows with overt symptoms of the disease--swollen lymph nodes, neurological illness,and wasting. That's because symptoms like decreased milk production and increased susceptibility toinfection, which are believed to be earlier and more subtle effects of BIV, usually prompt dairy farmers tocull cattle from their herds before the full-blown onset of the disease. For the same reason, it is notknown whether BIV is normally lethal.This virus is able to cross the bovine placenta at various stages of gestation, resulting in very differentclinical outcomes such as: fetal abortion, congenital defects, and offspring that are persistently infected.Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus which is genetically and antigenically related to thehuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)It should be noted that the BIV virus can cross species lines and infect other animals, like sheep, goats,and primates.
Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis (MAP) aka Johne’s disease
Another disease in New Zealand cattle that should be closely scrutinised is MycobacteriumParatuberculosis (MAP) commonly called Johne’s disease, which is closely related to the organisms thatcause tuberculosis and leprosy.

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
dewi wildan liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->