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KS3 History FREE sample unit for Holocaust Memorial Day

KS3 History FREE sample unit for Holocaust Memorial Day

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KS3 History resources from our popular KS3 History Course - History in Progress (book 3) - for January 27th - Holocaust Memorial Day.

Why not download our free sample chapter to use with your KS3 History pupils, this unit covers genocide, what happened and why it happened.

Within the unit you can find the information you will need for your lesson, including various sources to examine with your class, in addition to a number of activities for your pupils centred around the unit.

This unit covers:
* How did the Nazis try to kill all European Jews.
* Who was to blame for the 'Final Solution'
* Why did the Hutus try and kill all the Tutsis
* Are genocides unique - why do they happen

To find out more, or order free Evaluation copy of History in Progress for 60 days visit us now at http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/Secondary/History/11-14/HistoryinProgress/HistoryinProgress.aspx
KS3 History resources from our popular KS3 History Course - History in Progress (book 3) - for January 27th - Holocaust Memorial Day.

Why not download our free sample chapter to use with your KS3 History pupils, this unit covers genocide, what happened and why it happened.

Within the unit you can find the information you will need for your lesson, including various sources to examine with your class, in addition to a number of activities for your pupils centred around the unit.

This unit covers:
* How did the Nazis try to kill all European Jews.
* Who was to blame for the 'Final Solution'
* Why did the Hutus try and kill all the Tutsis
* Are genocides unique - why do they happen

To find out more, or order free Evaluation copy of History in Progress for 60 days visit us now at http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/Secondary/History/11-14/HistoryinProgress/HistoryinProgress.aspx

More info:

Published by: Pearson Schools and FE Colleges on Jan 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/13/2010

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99
Ruling:
1.1 What did the suragettes do to get the vote?
 
Why do genocides happen?
History in Progress: 1901–Present
98
2.4a
Living and working:
2.4 Why do genocides happen?
99
How did the Nazis try tokill all European Jews?
When they joined the German army, some ocers might never have imagined theywould order the shooting o deenceless women and children. But rom 1941 to1945 many did; they saw it as their duty to ensure that the German nation survived.
Sowing seeds of hatred
Source a
is clear evidence o just one act o murder. The Nazis, and thosewho they got to help them, killed 6 million people, mostly Jewish men,women and children, between 1939 and 1945. In act, the Nazis wanted tokill all 11 million Jews in Europe. It is very dicult to understand the reasonor this. Germany was a modern country with an educated population.What caused some otherwise ordinary people to become killers? There were a number o ways in which the Nazi government tried toencourage
anti-Semitism
between 1933 and 1945, including:propaganda
use o laws to exclude Jews rom public lie
threat o arrest or those who disagreed with Nazi views
removing Jews rom Germany and orcing them to liveelsewhere in terrible conditions.
Anti-Semitism
Hatred o Jews.
Deportation
Forced removal rom yourhome or country.
Genocide
Deliberate attempt tomurder an entire nationalor ethnic group o people.
Ghetto
Part o a town walled of rom the rest where Jewswere orced to live.
Weigh the evidence!
2
Look again at
sources b–e
. Which two do youthink give the best evidence that Nazis were tryingto make ordinary Germans hate the Jews? As youmake your decision remember to think about:the content o the source
 the nature, origin and purpose o the source.
Going undercover!
 The Social Democrat Party (SPD) was banned in 1933,shortly ater the Nazis came to power. The SPD leadersfed rom Germany to Prague to escape arrest, but theykept spies in the country to send reports about whatwas going on.
3
Imagine you are an SPD spy in 1939. You are toldto send a report about how the Nazis are trying toencourage anti-Semitic attitudes. In your report,use the evidence you have seen to make clear whatyou think are the most important pressures.Give lots o details about these pressures.
In this lessonyou will:
e
xplore whathappened to Jewsunder Nazi controlu
se pictorialinormation toinvestigate a problem.
?
In pairs, look at  source a. Why might this soldier have carried out this shooting? Try to list three possible reasons.
  Anti-Semitism was taught at school, especially in history and biology 
lessons. Here, two Jewish children are orced to stand by a blackboard that reads ‘The Jews are our greatest enemy! Beware o Jews.’ Jewish childrenwere eventually excluded rom German schools in 1938. German Jews were
deported 
to
 ghettos
in Polish towns romOctober 1941. Living conditions in these ghettos were hellish. Ninety-one Jews were killed and 30,000 Jews were sent to
concentration camps in November 1938 ater a Jew murdered a Germandiplomat in Paris. All German Jews had to wear a Star o David badgeater 1 September 1941. The Nazi Party 
controlled the media –newspapers, radio and cinema. It produced lots o anti-Semitic  propaganda like thislm,
The Eternal Jew
.
Why did so few people help the Jews?
In Germany, the Nazis tried to control every singleaspect o people’s lives – the books they read, themusic they listened to and who they could marry. I youdid not t in, you could become a victim o a powerulpolice state. Many people were arrested, imprisonedand even killed without a air trial, because all the judges were Nazis.
 
Use your eyes!
1
Look at
sources b–e
.For each one:
a)
decide which methodo anti-Semitism thissource best shows
b)
explain your decisionusing details rom thesource.
  A German soldier in the
Ukraine about to shoot awoman and child, 1942.
 
History in Progress: 1901–Present
100
2.4b
101
Crematoria
Furnaces or ovens usedto burn corpses into ash.Modern cremations arenothing like the ones used bythe Nazis.
Extermination
To destroy completely; to kill.
Who was to blame for the ‘Final Solution’?
Between 1940 and 1942 the Nazis shot more than 1 million Jews in Poland andRussia. However, Nazi leaders worried that shooting was too slow and had a badimpact on the morale o soldiers. At some point in 1941, leaders began to talk abouta ‘Final Solution’to the ‘Jewish problem’, but it was not clear what this would be. There were plans to send the Jews to Siberia or Madagascar. Siberia is a huge, fatplain in central Russia where temperatures can plunge as low as minus 50 degreesCelsius in winter. Madagascar is a large island o the east coast o Arica wheremalaria is a common disease.
?
Why would the Nazis want to send the Jews to such places? 
Camps and killing
Failure to deeat Russia in the war meant that plans to send Jews to Siberia werenot possible. So the Nazis experimented with quicker ways to kill Jews withinthe areas they controlled. Explosives and exhaust umes rom vans were triedbeore a gas called Zyklon B was ound to be a quick killer. Between 1941 and1944,
extermination
camps were built where all European Jews, gypsies andhomosexuals could be murdered in huge gas chambers.
Read for yourself
1
Read
source a
.
a)
What images doyou nd the mostpowerul in this letter?
b)
Why do you think Zalmen Gradowskiwrote this letter? Tryto list three reasons.
Why do genocides happen?
Living and working:
2.4 Why do genocides happen?
In this lessonyou will:
i
nvestigate who wasresponsible or the‘Final Solution’u
se written sources tosupport an argument.
 d     g   d           y   g  d   p    p    y  l  l     g    d   Y     g   y  l        g    l   g  , d   p  d   g d  ,   g  l  l      d     y      ‘ ’  T   y  l    f d    y  ,  y  d  d    y  l  l     p d     l  l          y     T     l        g               g  g ,  d  d   d    d   g  g d         g l     
r  t  r  
 l  d     p l  d    p  l   l   g    d    d  d  d      d  ,    p        p      d  l       T         p d   d      p d    T     l   g   f  T    l  l   d   l  ,  g   p           d    d   l   g  ,  d      p  d     l     j   y    l   d   y     f ,    p l    p ,      p l  l    d    y     f  l   T     T     p   d             T   l    p    ,  d   y ,  l  d  ,  d  d    d   
 Letter ound buried near the gas chambers in
 Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland. It was written by Zalmen Gradowski, a Polish Jew orced to work at the extermination camp. The extermination camp at 
 Auschwitz, Poland, 1944.
 
EASTPRUSSIAWESTPRUSSIA
GERMANY
GREECEALBANIABULGARIAROMANIAPOLANDUKRAINELATVIASOVIET UNION(RUSSIA)OCCUPPIEDRUSSIALITHUANIABELARUSESTONIAHUNGARYCROATIASLOVENIASERBIAMONT.MACE.AUSTRIACZECH REP.SWITZ.OCCUPIED FRANCEVICHY FRANCE(UNOCCUPIED)SPAINBELGIUM
ParisViennaRomeBudapestAuschwitzLwowWarsawBerlinBialystok Cluj Thessaloniki
NETH.LUX.UNITEDKINGDOMDENMARK NORWAYSWEDEN
NorthSeaBaltic SeaMediterraneanSeaBlack Sea
 TURKEY
ITALY
N
Extermination campConcentration campAxis Country/annexedby AxisOccupied by AxisNeutralItaly (Axis) at heightof occupationMajor transportationroutesAllied Country250 miles (400 km)0
Living and working:
2.4 Why do genocides happen?
103
History in Progress: 1901–Present
102
Who was to blame?
Zalmen Gradowski wanted revenge on the murderers, but who was to blame?Almost 5 million people were taken rom their homes to camps like Auschwitzwhere they were either murdered straight away or worked to death in whatbecame known as the Holocaust. Many Germans who lived through the SecondWorld War claimed they did not know what was happening to the Jews. Somehistorians doubt this claim and think that pressure or the ‘Final Solution’camerom ordinary people as much as rom the Nazi leaders.In 1996, an American historian called Daniel Goldhagen published a book called
Hitler’s Willing Executioners
. In this book, he argued that most ordinary Germanswanted the Holocaust to happen because they hated Jews; the Nazi leaders just ‘unleashed’this hatred. This caused lots o arguments in Germany: somethought that he unairly insulted the German people; others thought he madetrue points that were dicult to accept. What will you think?
 Rail networks leading to prisons and extermination camps rom the major cities.
Online arguments …
4
Below is the start o a thread in an online orum. Add your own longer comment, explaining which view you agreewith the most. Make sure you use lots o detail rom the sources (and other inormation) in this and the previouslesson to support your argument.
By Joe_247, 14 May 10.33am
It might be tough for the Germans to hear, but I think Goldhagen is right. The Germans hatedthe Jews before the Second World War started and they did nothing at all to stop the killing!
By Lisa_365, 14 May 11.45am
Goldhagen is wrong! The Nazi leaders tried their best to make ordinary Germans hatethe Jews, but even then they had to keep the killing a secret. There were lots of otherreasons why some people helped carry out the Holocaust – not just anti-Semitism!
 Your turn …
2
Use
sources b–g
andthe map to make alist o the people whohelped to carry outthe ‘Final Solution’. Foreach, decide whetherit suggests Nazi leadersor ordinary peoplewere to blame or the‘Final Solution’.
What’s the confusion?
Despite years o research, many historians stilldo not agree who was ultimately to blameor the Holocaust. This is partly because thesources are not very clear. There is no sourcethat says: ‘I order you to kill all the Jews.’
3
Look again at
sources b–g
. This time,or each source explain why the contentand the nature, origin and purposeo the source might lead to dierentinterpretations about who was to blame.
Following the orders o 31 July 1941, it was agreedthat work should be done toprepare or the ‘Final Solution’,but without upsetting thepopulation. This work shouldbegin in Poland because theghettos are overcrowded.
Extract rom the record o a
meeting o Nazi leaders in Wannsee,a small town near Berlin, on 20 January 1942.
 
I was present this aternoon at a ‘specialaction’applied to emale prisoners. All themen are keen to take part in these actionsbecause they get special rations: alcohol,ve cigarettes, sausage, bread. The builders can only nish the crematoria i they use wires and metal that are being keptor other buildings. I we can use these, ‘specialtreatment’can begin on 15 February 1943.
 Extract rom the diary o Dr Johann Kremer, a doctor 
at Auschwitz, 5 September 1942. Doctors who had developed ways to kill the mentally and physically handicapped in Germany in 1939 were sent to helpwith the ‘Final Solution’. From a letter rom architect Karl Bischof to the
commander o Auschwitz, 29 January 1943.
I the Jews start anotherworld war, the result will bethe destruction o the Jewsin Europe!
From a speech by Adol Hitler in the
German Parliament, 30 January 1939.
T
 
he Jews were removed romthe region without the localpeople noticing. The actionwent very smoothly.
 Extract rom a letter between two
leading Nazis who went on to run the‘Final Solution’, 29 October 1940.
 
Q:
 
What was your job during the war? 
A:
It was very similar to my job beore the war. I organised the timetables orspecial trains.
Q:
 
Did you know that trains to Auschwitz meant death for the people on board? 
A:
O course not! I never went there. I stayed at my desk in Krakow.
Q:
 
 Auschwitz to Krakow is 40 miles.
A:
That’s not very ar. And we knew nothing. Not a clue.
Q:
 
But you knew that the Nazis – that Hitler – didn’t like the Jews.
A:
That we did. It was no secret. But as to their extermination, that was newsto us.
Q:
 
But the Polish people knew everything.
A:
That’s not surprising. They lived nearby, they heard, they talked. And theydidn’t have to keep quiet.
 From an interview with Walter Stier in 1985. He was one o 900,000 Germans who worked 
on the railways.

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