The Air Interface carries the Radio Waves.The Um interface is the interface between theMS and the BTS. Voice is modulated on a radio frequency carrier and transmitted on theAir Interface. The frequency used in GSM is in UHF range i.e. 30 -3000 MHz
Ultra highfrequency radio waves are typically generated by oscillating charges on a transmittingantenna. In the case of a radio station, the antenna is often simply a long wire (a dipole)fed by an alternating voltage/current source, that is, charge is placed on the antenna bythe alternating voltage source. We can think of the electric field as being disturbancessent out by the dipole source and the frequency of the oscillating electric field (theelectromagnetic wave) is the same as the frequency of the source
Each antenna has a unique radiation pattern. This pattern can be represented graphicallyby plotting the received time-averaged power, as a function of angle with respect to thedirection of maximum power in a log-polar diagram. The pattern is representative of theperformance of the antenna in a test environment. However, it only applies to the free-space environment in which the test measurement takes place. Upon installation, thepattern becomes more complex, due to the extra factors affecting propagation under fieldconditions. Thus, the real effectiveness of any antenna is measured in the field.
An antenna is a device that is made to efficiently radiate and receive radiatedelectromagnetic waves. There are several important antenna characteristics that should beconsidered when choosing an antenna for your application as follows:• Antenna radiation patterns• Power Gain• Directivity• Polarization
Antenna Radiation Patterns
An antenna radiation pattern is a 3-D plot of its radiation far from the source. Antennaradiation patterns usually take two forms, the elevation pattern and the azimuth pattern.The elevation pattern is a graph of the energy radiated from the antenna looking at it fromthe side as can be seen in Figure (a) . The azimuth pattern is a graph of the energyradiated from the antenna as if you were looking at it from directly above the antenna asshown in fig (b). When you combine the two graphs you have a 3-D representation of how energy is radiated from the antenna as shown in fig (c)