Dr. B. K. Sridhara, Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NIE, Mysore-8
Chapter 5Vibration Measuring Instruments5.1 Introduction
In practice the measurement of vibrations becomes necessary due to following reasons.1.
To determine natural frequencies, modal shapes and damping ratios. Themeasurement of frequencies of vibration and forces developed is necessary todesign active vibration isolation systems.2.
The theoretically computed vibration characteristics of a machine or structure maybe different from the actual values due to the assumptions made in the analysis. (Toverify the analytical models).3.
Periodic measurement of vibration characteristics of machines and structuresbecomes essential to ensure adequate safety margins. (Preventive maintenance).4.
Measurement of input and resulting output vibration characteristics of a systemhelps in identifying the system in terms of its mass, stiffness and damping.
5.2 Vibration Measurement Scheme
Figure 5.1 shows the basic features of a vibration measurement scheme.1.
Vibrating machine or structure.2.
Vibration transducer or pick up.3.
Signal conversion instrument.4.
Display / recording.5.
Figure 5.1 Vibration Measurement Scheme
The motion of a vibrating body is converted in to an electrical signal by the vibrationtransducer or pick up. The transducer transforms changes in mechanical quantities such asdisplacement velocity, acceleration in to changes in electrical quantities such as voltage orcurrent. (Electrodynamic pick up, electromagnetic pick up, piezo electric pick up,inductive displacement pick up, LVDT pick up, capacitive pick up). Since the outputsignal of a transducer is too small to be recorded directly, a signal conversion instrument isused to amplify the signal to the required value (Amplifier). The output from the signalconversion instrument can be displayed on a display unit or stored in a computer for lateruse (Oscilloscope, A to D converters, milli voltmeters, computers etc., the data can then be