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Vibration Measurements eNotes1

Vibration Measurements eNotes1

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03/29/2014

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Dr. B. K. Sridhara, Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NIE, Mysore-8
1
Vibration MeasuringInstruments
 
By:
Dr. B. K. Sridhara,
NIE, Mysore
 
eNotes for the session on EDUSATProgramme
 
 
Dr. B. K. Sridhara, Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NIE, Mysore-8
2
Chapter 5Vibration Measuring Instruments5.1 Introduction
In practice the measurement of vibrations becomes necessary due to following reasons.1.
 
To determine natural frequencies, modal shapes and damping ratios. Themeasurement of frequencies of vibration and forces developed is necessary todesign active vibration isolation systems.2.
 
The theoretically computed vibration characteristics of a machine or structure maybe different from the actual values due to the assumptions made in the analysis. (Toverify the analytical models).3.
 
Periodic measurement of vibration characteristics of machines and structuresbecomes essential to ensure adequate safety margins. (Preventive maintenance).4.
 
Measurement of input and resulting output vibration characteristics of a systemhelps in identifying the system in terms of its mass, stiffness and damping.
5.2 Vibration Measurement Scheme
Figure 5.1 shows the basic features of a vibration measurement scheme.1.
 
Vibrating machine or structure.2.
 
Vibration transducer or pick up.3.
 
Signal conversion instrument.4.
 
Display / recording.5.
 
Data analysis.
Figure 5.1 Vibration Measurement Scheme
The motion of a vibrating body is converted in to an electrical signal by the vibrationtransducer or pick up. The transducer transforms changes in mechanical quantities such asdisplacement velocity, acceleration in to changes in electrical quantities such as voltage orcurrent. (Electrodynamic pick up, electromagnetic pick up, piezo electric pick up,inductive displacement pick up, LVDT pick up, capacitive pick up). Since the outputsignal of a transducer is too small to be recorded directly, a signal conversion instrument isused to amplify the signal to the required value (Amplifier). The output from the signalconversion instrument can be displayed on a display unit or stored in a computer for lateruse (Oscilloscope, A to D converters, milli voltmeters, computers etc., the data can then be
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Dr. B. K. Sridhara, Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering, NIE, Mysore-8
3analyzed to determine the desired vibration characteristics of the machine. Depending uponthe quantity measured the vibration measuring instrument is called a vibrometer, a velocitymeter, an accelerometer, a phase meter or a frequency meter. To summarise, following arethe guidelines.1.
 
Displacement measurements may be useful for studying low frequency vibrations,where corresponding velocity and acceleration measurements are too small forpractical purposes.2.
 
Velocity measurements may be useful at intermediate frequencies wheredisplacement measurements are likely to be small to measure conveniently.3.
 
Acceleration measurements may be useful at high frequencies.Instead of the above, vibration analyzers can also be used. Several commercial vibrationanalyzers are available today. They consist of a vibration pick up and an FFT (Fast FourierTransformation) analyser, a balancing kit for phase measurement and an inbuilt computer.The pick up essentially a piezo electric type with a natural frequency of 25 kcps. (KHz).Built in double integration is also available for displacement plots. FFT converts timedomain signal to a signal in frequency domain to identify the frequencies of concern.
5.3 Vibration pick ups: Seismic Instruments
The commonly used vibration pick ups are called seismic instruments. The basic elementof many vibration measuring instrument is a seismic unit which is basically a spring mass-damper system mounted on a vibrating body on which measurements are to be made asshown in Figure 5.2.
Figure 5.2Seismic Unit
 
Depending on the frequency range utilized displacement, velocity or acceleration isindicated, by the relative motion of the suspended mass with respect to the case.Behaviour of Seismic unitConsider the equation of motion of spring-mass-damper system, subjected to baseexcitation, as shown in Figure 5.3.
CxCasingy

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