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MANDELA and SISULU - Equivocation, Treachery and the Road to Sharpeville

MANDELA and SISULU - Equivocation, Treachery and the Road to Sharpeville

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Published by sharpeville50
The reasons for the protests that led to the Sharpeville Massacre 21 March 1960. It is a highly critical account of the role of Nelson Mandela ("dithering aristocrat")and Walter Sisulu ("a Judas") during the years 1952-60 which cost the ANC the support of the militant African lower class, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in 1959 in exasperation at ANC/SACP inaction. It is also a fierce indictment of the PAC's degeneration after 1986 into "mystical fascism."
The reasons for the protests that led to the Sharpeville Massacre 21 March 1960. It is a highly critical account of the role of Nelson Mandela ("dithering aristocrat")and Walter Sisulu ("a Judas") during the years 1952-60 which cost the ANC the support of the militant African lower class, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in 1959 in exasperation at ANC/SACP inaction. It is also a fierce indictment of the PAC's degeneration after 1986 into "mystical fascism."

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: sharpeville50 on Jan 24, 2010
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01/17/2013

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MANDELA AND SISULU
EQUIVOCATION, TREACHERY, AND THE ROAD TO SHARPEVILLE
Written to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Sharpeville Massacre
21 March 2010
Izwe LethuUNIVERSITY OF AZANIA PRESSISBN 978-9980-85-005-8azania@africamail.com
 
 
 2
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS1940
The African National Congress (ANC) revives its fading fortunes by electing a cautiousbut modernizing president, Dr Alfred Bitini Xuma
1944
Radical young Africans associated with Anton Muziwakhe Lembede decide to form theANC Youth League (ANCYL) rather than a more militant separate party
1945
John Beaver “J. B.” Marks revives the Communist Party’s reputation in the MinersStrike but consequent repression makes it impossible to utilize miners for politicalagitation for decades
1947
Lembede dies and is replaced by the ineffectual theorist Ashley Peter Mda
1948
The Purified National Party of Dr Malan wins the national election and, despite its slimmajority, ignores its own economic advisers to implement apartheid
1949
The ANCYL succeeds in having a compromise strategy
The Programme of Action
 adopted as ANC policy, which imitates Gandhi’s Nkrumah’s examples of peacefulmass protests but without due consideration for counter measures against thepossibility of White regime extreme retaliation. Dr Xuma is replaced by Dr Moroka asANC president
1950
Kwame Nkrumah’s
Positive Action
campaign in Gold Coast (Ghana). Nelson Mandelais appointed leader of the Defiance Campaign volunteersCommunist Party of South Africa (CPSA) dissolves to avoid prosecution
1951-2
Inspired by Nkrumah’s February 1951 election victory in Ghana thousands of ANCvolunteers and affiliated minority ethnic organisations defy the pass laws and otherrace-based restrictions. Basutoland African Congress (BAC) founded in Basutolandagainst ANC wishes. P. K. Leballo heads most powerful (Transvaal) BAC branch.March 1952 Nkrumah becomesprime minister in Ghana.
Dec 1952
The ANC leadership calls off the Defiance Campaign, frightened by escalatingviolence and impeding legislation. Dr Moroka is sacked and replaced by Chief AlbertLutuli
1953
The Criminal Law Amendment Act and Public Safety Act deter political activistsfrom professional classes from confrontational activities. Growing anger from lowerclass ANC activists against leadership’s perceived cowardice. Communists secretlyform South African Communist Party (SACP) and gain control over Congress of Democrats, Indian Congress, SACPO, and SACTU. ANC secretary general WalterSisulu secretly visits Soviet bloc without Lutuli’s knowledge
1954
Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe and P. K. Leballo take over the leadership of the
 Africanist Movement 
from Mda and lead campaign against clandestine communistcontrol of ANC
1955
Walter Sisulu secretly joins the SACP and manipulates
The Congress of the People
 and the
Freedom Charter 
events, taking advantage of Lutuli’s lethargy and isolation,to reduce the ANC to the position of a mere equal in a five man SACP executivecommittee in charge of the Congress Alliance: ANC, SAIC, SACPO, COD andSACTU.
1956
Inept blanket arrests of past and present activists and subsequent Treason Trial giveinternational publicity to Congress Alliance leaders but exacerbates corruption andmismanagement in the Transvaal ANC. Africanist strength escalates
1957
Oliver Tambo alters the ANC Constitution to entrench elitist undemocratic structureof Congress Alliance. Nkrumah’s Ghana independent
1958
Basotho leader Ntsu Mokhehle elected to AAPC (“African Comintern” SteeringCommittee but British government imposes adopts new constitution on Basutoland
 
 3
similar to Congress Alliance. Oliver Tambo closes ANC Transvaal ProvinceConference to prevent election of Robert Sobukwe in place of Nelson Mandela.Mokhehle advises Sobukwe, Leballo and Madzunya to form a new party backed bythe AAPC of Kwame Nkrumah. BAC become Basutoland Congress Party (BCP)
1959
April formation of the PAC Africanist Congress. Sobukwe becomes president withLeballo as secretary-general. Rapid recruitment of young male lower class activistswith considerable assistance from Mokhehle’s BCP.December ANC and PAC conferences both plan for national demonstrations in 1960.Challenged by ANC, the PAC decides to launch a major campaign rather than gainexperience first
1960
Ntsu Mokhehle wins 36 out of 40 seats in the Basutoland election but 40 additionalnominated members relegate him to a minor role. However, BCP controls eight out of nine local government district councils. March 21 PAC demonstrations commencewith significant support from Basotho communities in the Transvaal and Cape. MainPAC leaders arrested before shooting at Sharpeville kills over 69 protestors. Passlaws suspendedMarch 30 Colonel Terblanche disobeys orders to save Cape Town from probablepolice-PAC carnage. State of Emergency declared. PAC and ANC banned. Verwoerdsurvives assassination attempt and believes he has divine mission. Pass lawsreinstated. May 4, PAC leaders jailed – Sobukwe for three years. 1950’s ruraltensions in the Transkei escalate and coalesce into Poqo movement. ANC, UnityMovement and PAC all claim leadership but PAC eventually takes over.
1961
March 25-26, All In Conference Mandela announces formation of All ActionCouncil. Police respond in May by arresting over eight thousand suspects. Mokhehleattacked for criticising Mandela. November 1961 formation of ANC military force,Umkhonto we Sizwe led by ten SACP members and Mandela and ostensiblymodelled on the Israeli Irgun movement but emphasizing sabotage not combat.
1962
Mandela secretly leaves South Africa for other African states and obtains basicmilitary training in Ethiopia. Urges an end to Alliance domination of ANC. Arrestedin August after probable SACP betrayal and sentenced to five years jail. Leballoescapes to Basutoland from Tongaland detention and takes over as acting PAC leader.PAC violence in the Cape.
1963
Poqo/PAC Mbashe River bridge murders and other violence leads to severe Whitecriticism of NP regime. Leballo warns that the coming war will cause widespreadWhite civilian deaths. The British police raid PAC HQ in Maseru. Leballo evadescapture for six months. Sobukwe detained after completing his sentence and sent toRobben Island. MK high command captured at Liliesleaf farm, Rivonia along withMandela’s incriminating diary. “Rivonia Trial” begins. PMU formed in Protectorates.
1964
Mandela receives life sentence. Leballo expelled from Basutoland. Royalist-ANCoriented Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP) support plummets following Rothemurders. Shift in anti-BCP forces from MFP to NP-OMI backed BNP. Nkrumahdeclares one party state and himself as president for life.
1965
Overconfidence, neglect of eastern mountains, and SACP funding costs BCP electionwin. BNP government derided as NP-OMI puppet-“government of herd boys.”Leabua Jonathan becomes prime minister after bye-election. Traditional chiefsreplace elected district councils.
1966
Leabua Jonathan meets Verwoerd in Pretoria. Vorster becomes prime minister afterVerwoerd’s assassination. October independence for Lesotho. Thaba Bosiu violence the Lesotho King attempts to become executive monarch and BCP tries to swampgovernment offices and seize power. King signs “suicide clause” and becomes a

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