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Technical Paper

Technical Paper

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T
ECHNICAL
P
APER
 
Title:
A Novel Code Planning Approach for a WCDMA Network
Authors:
Thrasivoulos (Sakis) Griparis, Tristan Lee—Bechtel Corporation
 
Date:
August 2005
 
Publication/Venue:
Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1
©
2005 Bechtel Corporation. All rights reserved.
 
 
© 2005 Bechtel Corporation. All rights reserved.47
INTRODUCTION
U
sing trial networks, many tests havebeen performed to verify wideband codedivision multiple access (WCDMA) networkperformance—from cell ranges to handoversuccess rates. One such test involves analyzingthe best method of downlink (DL) scramblingcode allocation. This paper presents a novelapproach to code planning that provides amarked improvement in coverage probabilitycompared to other code planning schemes.Unlike previous frequency division multipleaccess (FDMA) mobile networks, WCDMAnetworks do not require frequency planning,since a common carrier can be used across allcells. Instead, WCDMA relies on the concept ofscrambling codes to differentiate among cells inthe DL.Code planning within a WCDMA network isgenerally done by a radio network planningteam. Many commercial or in-house planningtools now have the capability to automaticallyassess code reuse within a network and allocatethe DL scrambling codes accordingly.Rather than using a code allocation strategy thatmaximizes code reuse, one novel method of codeplanning employs an approach wherein a site’sprimary DL scrambling codes belong to the samecode group. This method has a number ofbeneficial features, including simple codeallocation strategy, high code reuse, field-engineer-friendly allocation strategy, andimproved call/handover success rate.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
T
he synchronization channel (SCH) is a DLchannel used by the user equipment (UE) forthe initial cell search. The SCH consists of twosubchannels: the primary SCH (P-SCH) and thesecondary SCH (S-SCH).The 10 ms radio frames of the P-SCHs andS-SCHs are divided into 15 time slots, each with alength of 2,560 chips. Each block within theP-SCH consists of a modulated code, called theprimary synchronization code (PSC), with alength of 256 chips. The PSC is unique within thenetwork (the same for all cells in the system).Only one modulated block is transmitted at thebeginning of each slot.The S-SCH is transmitted in parallel with theP-SCH. Like the P-SCH, it has a data rate of15 kbps, and only one 256-chip block per slot istransmitted at the beginning of each slot.A secondary synchronization code (SSC)modulates each S-SCH block. There are 16 SSCs.Each block of the S-SCH, transmitted at thebeginning of each slot, can be modulated by adifferent SSC. The combination of SSCs thatmodulate the S-SCH symbols within a frame hasa one-to-one mapping with the primaryscrambling code group used in the cell. TheS-SCH sequence is, therefore, determined by theprimary scrambling code planning.
A NOVEL CODE PLANNING APPROACHFOR A WCDMA NETWORKA NOVEL CODE PLANNING APPROACHFOR A WCDMA NETWORK
 Abstract—
This paper explains the background of WCDMA scrambling code planning and the theory behind a planning technique where a site’s primary DL scrambling codes belong to the same code group. The paper then goes on to describe the tests performed on a test platform and on a network, and the results achieved. Finally,the paper summarizes the code planning technique and the benefits over other code allocation schemes.
Issue Date: August 2005Issue Date: August 2005
 Thrasivoulos(Sakis) Griparis
tgripari@bechtel.com
 Tristan Lee
tmlee@bechtel.com
 
CODE PLANNING METHODOLOG
A
s described above, the S-SCH sequence isdictated by the DL primary scrambling codeplanning. If a site’s DL primary scrambling codesbelong to the same code group, then the P-SCHand S-SCH sequences are the same for all cells ofthe site. If, on the other hand, the site’s DLprimary scrambling codes belong to differentgroups, then the cells’ S-SCH sequences aredifferent, and only the P-SCH sequences arethe same.If the same code group is used, then the S-SCHsymbols from the different cells of the site can besuperimposed (by synchronizing the time offsetbetween cells) to create stronger P-SCH andS-SCH signals as measured by the UE.A simple code planning methodology exploitsthe properties of the S-SCH mentioned above tomake code management straightforward. Asoftware tool (developed internally by Bechtel)loads the site database and assigns DLscrambling codes on a code-group basis. Each siteis allocated a code group, and individual cellswithin the site are allocated codes from thatgroup, starting with the first code of the group forthe first cell of the site and so on.A carrier-to-interference (C/I) ratio computationalgorithm within the tool ensures that codegroup reuse distance (or DL scramblingcode reuse distance) meets the necessaryplanning requirements.
Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal48
ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, AND TERMS
BCCHbroadcast control channelBTSbase transceiver stationC/Icarrier-to-interference (ratio)CPICHcommon pilot channelDLdownlinkE
c
signal energy within one chipduration of a pilot signalE
c
/I
o
ratio of the signal energywithin one chip duration ofthe pilot signal to the powerspectrum of the interfaceand noiseFDMAfrequency division multipleaccessLOSline of sightNLOSnonline of sightPSCprimary synchronization codeP-SCHprimary synchronizationchannelSCHsynchronization channelSSCsecondary synchronizationcodeS-SCHsecondary synchronizationchannelUEuser equipmentWCDMAwideband code divisionmultiple access
Figure 1. Laboratory Test Configuration

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