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Zoology 100 Notes 4

Zoology 100 Notes 4

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Published by Bethany Jane Isidro

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Published by: Bethany Jane Isidro on Jan 25, 2010
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ZOOLOGY 100 NOTES (4).mid
SKELETAL SYSTEM

Osteology \u2013 study of structure, function and composition of bones
Chondrology \u2013 study of structure, function and composition of cartilages
Syndesmology \u2013 study of structure, functions, and compositions of joints.

Function Of Bones

\ue000Support
\ue000Protection
\ue000Movement
\ue000Mineral storage
\ue000Hemopoeisis/hematopoiesis
\ue000Leverage for locomotion
\ue000Transduction of sounds

Gross Anatomy of Bones
I. Compact Bones
\ue000Long Bones
\u2022
Diaphysis
-tubular part
\u2022
Epiphyses
-bone ends
\u2022
Epiphyseal Plate
\u2022
Blood Vessel
-with nutrient arteries and veins
\u2022
Medullary cavity
-marrow cavity of bones
\u2022
Membrane
\u2022
Periosteum
-covers the entire outer surface of each bone except in epiphyses
\u2022
Endosteum
- innermost covering of bones
Chemical Composition of Bones
1. Organic components
\ue001Collagen fibers
2. Inorganic components

\ue001calcium phosphate \ue001calcium carbonate \ue001Hydroxypatite ions

Microscopic anatomy of bones
The haversian system
Bone Development
OSSIFICATION \u2013 process of bone development
1. Intramembranous ossification
- direct bone development of membrane bones
2.Endochondral ossification
- development of bones preceeded by cartilages
Classification of Bones
1. Long Bones
Ex. femur, humerus
2. Short Bones
Ex. trapezoid
3. Flat Bones
Ex. Sternum, ribs
4. Irregular Bones

Ex. Hip bones, vertebrae
II. Cartilage
- specialized connective tissue in which fibers are laid down along the lines of stress in long,
parallel arrays firm and flexible
chondrocytes - cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix
-CHONDRIFICATION \u2013 chondroblast- chondrocytes

TYPES OF CARTILAGES
BASIS
HYALINE
ELASTIC
FIBRO-CARTILAGE
1.Matrix
Fine collagenous
fibers
Collagenous,elastic
fibers
Dense collagenous
2. Function
Cover and protect
bones,support
Flexible strength
Withstand tension &
compression
3. Location
Joints, trachea,costal ribs
Ears,nose,
larynx,audi-tory canal
Vertebral discs,pubic
sysmphysis
THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE
\ue000The cartilages replaced by bones
\ue000Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal human
skull
IV. ENAMEL
\ue000Developed from ameloblasts
\ue000Teeth \u2013 important for digestion

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