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Het Tretment by Sir Ishaq

Het Tretment by Sir Ishaq

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These are the complete lecture notes by sir Ishaq abro and i am converting it from ppt to doc....
These are the complete lecture notes by sir Ishaq abro and i am converting it from ppt to doc....

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Published by: Engr. Aftab Ahmed Laghari on Jan 25, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/28/2013

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Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro
BY: SIR MUHMMED ISHAQUE ABRO
Classes: 1-2
INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT:
Strengthening Mechanisms:
•Solid Solution Strengthening•Dispersion Strengthening•Work Hardening/Dislocation Strengthening•Heat Treatment/Thermal Treatment
Strengthening Mechanisms (Solid SolutionStrengthening):
•Solid solution strengthening is a phenomenon that occurs when the number of impurity atoms in the lattice of the basic element is so small that they are incapable of forming both stable and metastable precipitation phasesunder any thermal treatment conditions.•Nevertheless the impurity atoms favor improvement of mechanical properties. This can be accounted for thefollowing. –The presence of impurity atoms in the matrix lattice leads to distortion of the lattice because of the differencein size between the atomic radii of the impurity and the basic component. This in turn leads to the appearanceof elastic deformation fields, which retard movement of dislocations in slip planes under the action of appliedstresses. –In addition, the impurity atoms can inhibit movement of dislocations by forming impurity atmospheres aroundthem. –Grain size refinement also takes place due to addition of some metallic impurities like AL and Cu•All of the above factors play a leading role in solid solution strengthening.
Strengthening Mechanisms (DispersionStrengthening):
•In the majority of metal alloys, precipitation of supersaturated solid solutions formed during quenching isfollowed by precipitation of disperse particles enriched in atoms of the alloying components.•It was found that the strength (hardness) of the alloys increases with the precipitation of these particles.Tendency for steel to absorbnitrogen as well as carbon, which
 
is sometimes not desired.Requires special salt bath furnace. Not as suitable for volume production as gas carburizing.Disposal of spent salt may be a problem because of poisonousnature.Relatively easy control of surface carbon content;suitable for high volume productionMolten saltscontaining NaCNiquidarburizing
 
Requires special furnaces andatmosphere generators.Relatively easy control of surface carbon content;suitable for high volume productionVarious preparedatmospheres, e.g.H
2
+CO+CH
4
as CarburizingDifficult to control surface carboncontent, particularly when carboncontent must be held below 1%;usually requires individualhandling of parts requires specialfurnaces and atmospheregenerators.Required no specialfurnace equipment; onlyrestriction is that furnacemust be capable of operation at requiredtemperature.Solid carbone.g. charcoal – cokemixtureack Carburizing
 
Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro•The increment in the value of these characteristics increases as the dispersion and volume fraction of the particles increase.•This phenomenon has been referred to as dispersion strengthening.
Strengthening Mechanism ( Work Hardening):
•An important method used to strengthen steels is deformation strengthening.•Strengthening achieved with crystal deformation can be judged from the shape of stress–strain curves.
What is Heat Treatment?
Heating, Soaking and Cooling
Why Heat Treatment is?
•To obtained best combination of desired mechanical properties•For example: –High hardness and strength with low toughness value – High ductility and percent elongation with low hardness and strength value –High hardness and strength with high toughness value.
How?
•By altering: –Heating Temperature –Soaking Time –Cooling Rate –Heating and Cooling Cycles
 
 
01002003004005006007008009000 10 20 30
Time
     T    e    m    e    p    e    r    a     t    u    r    e
 
Composed by: Aftab Ahmed Laghari (07MT38) Supervised by: Sir M. I. Abro
Why?
•Metallurgical Characteristics: –Grain size –Microstructure –Precipitation of Secondary Phase –Distortion of Crystal Lattices•are Changing With Heating and Cooling Cycle
 
Grain Size:
•Garin (Demo_4)•Number of grains per unit area•Coarse grain –Small number of grains (4) per unit area.•Fine grain –High number of grains (18) per unit area.
Grain Boundary:
•The grain boundary is one of the basic structural elements in polycrystalline materials.•The grain boundary represents an interface between two differently oriented crystals.•This is the region of crystal imperfection.•It is capable of moving and adsorbing impurities.•The boundary has a high diffusive permeability.•Movement of grain boundaries controls the process of recrystallization.•Grain boundaries adsorb impurities.•Embrittlement of metal material is connected with enrichment of grain boundaries in impurities.•Grain boundaries may conventionally be divided into two large groups: low-angle and•large-angle boundaries.•Low-angle boundaries (or subgrain boundaries with an angle of less•than 10o) represent networks or walls of dislocations.•The structure of large-angle boundaries is much more complicated.
 

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