An Apostrophe is a direct address to the dead, to theabsent, or to a personified object or idea. This figure is a special form of personification.Example:(a)Milton! Thou should’st be living at this home.(b)O Friend! I know not which way I must look for, comfort.
II. Based on Contrast, Difference of Surprise
a striking opposition or contrast of wordsor sentiments is made in the same sentence. It is employed to secure emphasis.Examples:1.Man propeses, God disposes.2.Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of cathay.3.Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.(2)
An Epigram is a brief pointed saying frequently introducing antitheticalideas which excite surprise and arrest attention. Examples:1. The child is father of the man.2. Fools rush in where angles fear to tread.3. Art lies in concealing art.4. He makes no friend, who never made a foe.(3)
Oxymoron is a special form of antithesis, whereby twocontradictory gralities are predicted at once of the same thing.Examples:1. She accepted it as the kind cruelty of the surgeon’s knife.2. So innocent arch, so cunningly simple.(4)
Irony is the use of words, the natural meaning of which is justthe opposite of what is intended to be expressed. By this figure,therefore, we say one thing but mean just the opposite. e.g.,For Brutus is an honourable man;So are they all, all honourable men.3